Monday, August 24, 2020

Cost Theory

Cost Theory in Economics A focal financial idea is that getting something requires quitting any trace of something different. For instance, acquiring more cash may require working more hours, which costs more recreation time. Financial specialists use cost hypothesis to give a system to seeing how people and firms allot assets so that minimizes expenses and advantages high. 1. Capacity * Economists see costs as what an individual or firm should offer up to get something different. Opening an assembling plant to deliver products requires an expense of money.Once a plant proprietor goes through cash to make merchandise, that cash is not, at this point accessible for something different. Creation offices, hardware utilized in the creation procedure and plant laborers are for the most part instances of expenses. Cost hypothesis offers a way to deal with understanding the expenses of creation that permits firms to decide the degree of yield that harvests the best degree of benefit in any event cost. 2. Highlights * Cost hypothesis contains different proportions of expenses. These incorporate an association's fixed expenses and variable expenses. The previous don't differ with the amount of merchandise produced.Rent on an office is a case of a fixed expense. Variable costs change with the amount delivered. Whenever expanded creation requires more specialists, for instance, those laborers' wages are variable expenses. The total of fixed and variable expenses is an association's all out expenses. * Additional Measures * Cost hypothesis infers two extra cost measures. Normal complete expense is the all out cost partitioned by the quantity of merchandise created. Minor expense is the expansion in absolute cost that outcomes from expanding creation by one unit of output.Marginalsâ€including peripheral expenses and negligible revenueâ€are key ideas in standard monetary idea. Falling and Rising Costs * Economists regularly use diagrams, like flexibly and-request outli nes, to represent cost hypothesis and firms' choices about creation. A normal all out cost bend is a U-formed bend on a financial graph. This shape shows how normal all out costs decay as yield rises and afterward ascend as negligible costs increment. Normal all out costs decay from the start in light of the fact that as creation rises, normal expenses are appropriated over a bigger number of units of output.Eventually, negligible expenses of expanding yield rise, which builds normal all out expenses. Expanding Profits * Economic hypothesis holds that the objective of a firm is to augment benefit, which equivalents all out income short absolute expense. Deciding a degree of creation that produces the best degree of benefit is a significant thought, one that implies focusing on negligible expenses, just as minor income (the expansion in income emerging from an increment in yield). Under cost hypothesis, as long as minimal income surpasses negligible cost, expanding creation will rais e profit.Types of Cost Economics Economists consider costs various ways. Despite the fact that you may peruse the expense of a soup can at $1 as it’s recorded on the market rack, business analysts see the expense of the soup can in totally different manners. For instance, a business analyst asks what you are offering up to purchase that container of soup over another thing. They measure the firm’s cost of delivering that soup can as it identifies with their yield and factors of creation. Along these lines, the various sorts of financial expenses are changed. 1. Sunk Cost * A sunk expense is a cost that can't be recouped.Mark Hirschy, writer of the book, â€Å"Fundamentals of Managerial Economics,† clarifies that sunk expenses ought not factor into a choice when settling on options. For instance, say an individual burned through $50,000 on a degree in instruction and acquires $60,000 as an educator. She is later extended to an employment opportunity in promoting that pays her $80,000. In spite of the fact that she might be enticed to factor in her training degree as motivation to remain in her present showing work, her $50,000 degree is viewed as a sunk expense. She previously went through this cash, and it can't be recouped.In this case, she should just think about the separate compensations of the positions. In the event that all else is held equivalent, she should seek after the promoting work. Opportunity Cost * An open door cost is the estimation of an elective decision. Despite the fact that the word â€Å"cost† for the most part likens to a numerical worth, similar to a dollar figure, this isn't generally the situation. William Baumol and Alan Blinder, writers of the book, â€Å"Economics: Principles and Policy,† express that an open door cost computes impalpable things like time, area and occupation satisfaction.They clarify opportunity costs are what you offer up to tail one strategy. For instance, a college alum is s ettling on a vocation as a tech expert in Seattle or a venture representative in New York City. On the off chance that the graduate seeks after the venture merchant position, the open door expenses of previous the activity in Seattle could be a more slow pace of life, $10,000 more significant pay and lower expenses of living like lease and food. * Marginal Cost * A peripheral expense is the sum it takes to deliver one more item.Under this perspective on costs, they shift along the creation line and by and large the expense to deliver a decent diminishes after some time. Naturally, this bodes well: the more capable you become at delivering a decent, the quicker you can do it and less waste is created. The investment funds in labor and material as you accomplish â€Å"economies of scale† implies the expense of creation generally diminishes. The manner in which financial experts locate the peripheral expense is by taking the subordinate of the absolute expenses as it identifies with the all out yield. Step by step instructions to Find Marginal Cost in EconomicsDeciding whether to deliver more units is frequently founded on minor expense. The financial idea of negligible expense is the expense related with creating one extra unit. This data is essential to organizations since it permits the organization to choose if the extra unit merits delivering from a budgetary point of view. At the point when an organization delivers a modest quantity of item, the expense of extra units frequently decline. Notwithstanding, peripheral costs increment when extra units are included once the creation level arrives at the very least. This depends on the law of reducing minor returns.Instructions 1. * 1 Calculate the adjustment in absolute variable expense. This is the sum that the costs expanded by after extra units are created. For instance, in the event that you'd prefer to deliver more T-shirts and the expansion in yield would change the expenses by $100, at that point t he all out factor cost is $100. * 2 Find the adjustment in amount delivered. This speaks to what number of extra units you might want to deliver in the given situation. For instance, the adjustment in amount might be 50 on the off chance that you'd want to deliver 300 T-shirts rather than 250. * 3 Divide the adjustment in complete variable expenses from Step 1 by the adjustment in amount from Step 2. This will give you the negligible cost (minor expense = the adjustment in absolute variable cost/the adjustment in amount). For this model, $100 (the adjustment in absolute variable expense)/50 (the adjustment in amount) = $2 in peripheral costs, which is the expense of delivering each extra T-shirt. What Is the Relationship Between Production ; Cost? Creation costs are connected to the expense of materials and labor.The connection among creation and cost in any assembling procedure fluctuates dependent on volume delivered and whether any piece of the assembling procedure is redistribut ed or performed by subcontractors. Moreover, creation and cost proportions differ dependent on the measure of robotization associated with creation and the measure of human oversight and contribution required. 1. Variables of Production * The principle components of creation are work, capital and gracefully costs. Capital is characterized as gear, money saves, and physical area or creation facility.Labor is characterized as the measure of and cost of labor required to put up an item for sale to the public. This incorporates not just the physical work and oversight identified with item creation, yet in addition the related expenses of compensations of positions, for example, chiefs, conveyance drivers, distribution center managers, promoting executives and even managerial help. Gracefully costs are any charge related with making sure about important materials for creation. Subcontractor or redistributed work is viewed as a flexibly cost too, as the maker is basically buying an item o r administration for use in the creation process.In this model, work, for example, offsite making of item bundling or get together of minor segments of a completed item are viewed as gracefully costs similarly the acquisition of crude materials are viewed as gracefully costs. Volume of Production * Volume of creation figures connote the measure of items being delivered. Ordinarily, the more noteworthy the volume the lower the expense per unit as crude material providers frequently offer limits on mass or mass requests. Volume of creation depends on a company’s foreseen item needs, past deals records and set requests. *Volume of Business * The connection among creation and cost is every now and again controlled by the volume of business an organization is doing. A model that shows this point is a global nutrient enhancement organization that produces nutrients in mass contrasted with a little wellbeing natural way of life that delivers its own nutrient line in little amounts. The expense of the item created by the little organization will commonly be more prominent than the expense of the item offered by the mass maker in light of the fact that the littler organization delivers its item in littler volumes. Value Points The more it costs an organization to deliver an item, the more prominent value the organization should charge purchasers. A company’s creation costs incorporate the cost of materials, the expense of labor, the creation and bundling procedure, promoting, and appropriation. Mass makers might have the option to offer increasingly serious evaluating to end clients since they have the advantage of taking a shot at a slender edge because of the enormous volume of creation. In microeconomics, the since quite a while ago run is the theoretical timespan in which ther

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Contemporary Implications of Downsizing and Globalisation for the Essay

The Contemporary Implications of Downsizing and Globalization for the Global Company and Workforce - Essay Example In any case, cutting back may be ineffective whenever applied without thought of globalization. Coordinating a worldwide culture into the authoritative establishment is the assignment defying all organizations needing to get by in the contemporary worldwide economy (Marmolejo 2012). Various firms with broad involvement with the worldwide economy, for example, Gillette, have picked up information on making worldwide culture a component of the company’s standard tasks (Hassard et al. 2009). This paper examines the reasons organizations utilize scaling back and incorporate globalization into their activities, and the ramifications of these systems for work and day by day life in monetarily created nations. Scaling back and Globalization in Organizations Even for the exceptionally evolved associations on the universal field, the development of major monetary associations makes concerns, similar to how to effectively unite cutting back and globalization. Could a scaled back organiz ation, for example, adapt to advancements slanted towards globalization? For each organization, the improvement of the business sectors ceaselessly recharges worries for worldwide mix. In a flourishing financial express, the development towards globalization requires an engaged and continued self control. ... one of the principal premises of globalization, the ability to cut back all inclusive or, all the more explicitly, the support of cutting back by a worldwide point of view. Advancements with respect to worldwide incorporation and rivalry, modern smoothing out, and exchange understandings have for all time changed business exercises for the practically all chiefs. A specific ramifications for administrators is the at present far reaching selection of hierarchical scaling down. Scaling back has been particularly across the board among electronic or innovation firms these days (De Meuse 2004). In any case, scaling down influences each adventure that focuses on upper hand through cutting of expenses. There are two principle circumstances where cutting back could be fundamental. The first happens in quite a while that are troubled with inefficient resources or continually bombing units. They should make sense of whether to offer them to the individuals who can change these benefits into s omething beneficial (Gandolfi 2006). The subsequent circumstance happens when employments rely upon out of date innovation, for example, news organizations. In any case, discount ‘slash-and-burn’ techniques, similar to cover worker cutting back, once in a while bring about enduring focal points in benefits, effectiveness, and so forth (Gandolfi 2006). Cutting back - which began in the last piece of 1980s as a urgent, never-to-be-rehashed methodology to essentially diminish expenses to help organizations in contending universally or in enduring significant disappointments in their tasks - has as of now become a pillar in the worldwide financial field. There exists a solid interconnection between the three significant inspirations for scaling back, to be specific, client requests, most recent innovation, and worldwide rivalry, just as client arranged approaches and data based showcasing (Blackburn 1999). Specific

Friday, July 24, 2020

When You Shouldnt Fight to Save Your Marriage

When You Shouldn't Fight to Save Your Marriage Relationships Spouses & Partners Marital Problems Print Is Your Marriage Actually Worth Saving? By Sheri Stritof Sheri Stritof has written about marriage and relationships for 20 years. Shes the co-author of The Everything Great Marriage Book. Learn about our editorial policy Sheri Stritof Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Carly Snyder, MD on January 29, 2020 facebook twitter linkedin Carly Snyder, MD is a reproductive and perinatal psychiatrist who combines traditional psychiatry with integrative medicine-based treatments.   Learn about our Medical Review Board Carly Snyder, MD on January 29, 2020  People Images/Getty Images More in Relationships Spouses & Partners Marital Problems LGBTQ Violence and Abuse Marriage can be a blessing, but it can also break your heartâ€"especially if you think youve reached the end of the road. Theres no easy path to the decision to divorce, and the journey through uncoupling is different for everyone. If youre wondering if its time to throw in the towel, you need to determine if your marriage is going through a rough patch or if your relationship is so toxic that its truly time to end it. Only you know the answer to the question of whether youre better off staying married or getting a  divorce. Sometimes marriage is worth saving and sometimes it isnt. Abuse Is a Deal Breaker   While there are many who believe that the only deal breaker in a marriage is physical abuse, others believe some marriages just shouldnt survive when theres serial infidelity and/or emotional or physical abuse.?? This type of unhealthy, incompatible marriage is likely unsalvageable and needs to end. Although the reality is that divorce is hard, for many its harder, more painful, and actually dangerous to live disconnected and disengaged emotionally from an abusive spouse. Indeed, the toll negative relationships take on physical health can be huge. Some research suggests that chronically negative or abusive relationships can even shorten your lifespan. Dont Wait for a Sign to Leave Its a difficult and heavy choice to jump ship and end your marriage, but when youre fighting a losing battle or are feeling trapped and powerless in a marriage that could ultimately cause you harm, dont wait for a sign out of the blue to tell you to stay or to leave.   When its time to leave a bad relationship, chances are  youll knowâ€"youll feel it in your gut. If youre still wavering, ask yourself whats still good about your marriage and what isnt.  Listen to your inner voice and dont let a fear of the unknown keep you in a troubled marriage. Professional counseling can help you make it through this painful journey out of a dysfunctional relationship.?? Reasons Not to Fight to Save Your Marriage In no particular order, here are behaviors that can often get worse and ultimately can lead to divorce: Inability to compromiseDifferent goals or outlooks on lifeRepeated issuesExcessive spendingContinual lies, untrustworthyVery controlling over money, friends, etc.Playing the blame gameLack of empathyNo sense of responsibilityA sexless marriage, lack of affection or intimacyConstant criticismSerial unfaithfulnessDoesnt believe in monogamyBigamy or other criminal behaviorWont apologize for mistakes, has no remorse or regretUnwilling to try to save the marriageDenial of an addiction, refusal to seek helpAbuseLack of respect, contempt for each otherShifting priorities, such as whether or not to have children?? How to Know When Divorce Is the Right Move

Friday, May 22, 2020

A Brief Note On Ethics And Social Responsibility - 1543 Words

Women Equality Paige Haddock SOC 120: Introduction to Ethics Social Responsibility Shana Goodson 11/23/15 Introduction Promoting gender equality and empowering women and girls is a priority for the United States. Women’s equality has came a long ways. Women used to have it very hard historically, but even today women still experience some inequality towards men. In this paper it will examine the equalities in: voting, the workplace, and sexual harassment. This paper will also so how the ethical theories of Deontology and Utilitarianism plays a part and how the ethical perspective Emotivism also plays a part. Theories and Perspective Deontology is the reason for which the act is done and the rule according to which one chooses to act (Mosser, 2013). It doesn’t deny that the acts that we do have consequences (Mosser, 2013). It insists that those roles should not play a part in our moral evaluation of such acts (Mosser, 2013). Utilitarianism is a natural way to see whether an act is the right thing to do or the wrong thing to do it is to look at the results, or consequences of the act that we do (Mosser, 2013). Utilitarianism argues that, given a set of choices, the act that we should chose is one which produces the best results (Mosser, 2013). Emotivism offers a perspective on our ethical claims that eliminates much of the traditional kind of argument based on reason (Mosser, 2013). Emotivism, instead, sees our moral evaluation as simply the expression of whetherShow MoreRelatedA Brief Note On Ethics And Social Responsibility Essay1120 Words   |  5 Pages Discussion forum Unit 6 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The world most regions and countries are experiencing unexpected rapid demographic change. The practical example of this change is the â€Å"huge expansion of human population†. Over five billion been added to the world population of 1960. 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Thursday, May 7, 2020

Character Analysis Pride And Prejudice - 1160 Words

Seema Sabbagh Mr. Clark AP Literature, 6th 11/10/14 Pride and Prejudice 2002 - Morally ambiguous characters -- characters whose behavior discourages readers from identifying them as purely evil or purely good -- are at the heart of many works of literature. Choose a novel or play in which a morally ambiguous character plays a pivotal role. Then write an essay in which you explain how the character can be viewed as morally ambiguous and why his or her moral ambiguity is significant to the work as a whole. Avoid mere plot summary. Judging by reality and fiction, there is not a single person to exist that has been purely evil or purely good. Yet it is in human nature to judge others as good or evil. Elizabeth Bennet, the protagonist of Pride and Prejudice was quick to judge Fitzwilliam Darcy, the second central character of the novel, harshly based on her false assumptions of the arrogance of the wealthy. His initial egocentrism, due to his belief in a structured social hierarchy, caused her to form a prejudiced opinion of him. Throughout Pride and Prejudice, Fitzwilliam Darcy is shown to exhibit both good and evil qualities, although not always apparent to the narrator, Elizabeth. Jane Austen’s portrayal of Mr. Darcy as a morally ambiguous character uncovers the significance of class in English society during the late seventeenth century. The central theme of Pride and Prejudice is one of class. In a world where the lines of class are strictly drawn, the dignityShow MoreRelatedPride And Prejudic e Character Analysis1598 Words   |  7 Pagesanother era but also within generation themselves, as proves the character of Mr. Darcy. The evolution of Mr. Darcy’s character in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice symbolizes the disregarding of some of the values and behaviors regulating England’s Regency society such as class, reputation and the excess pride in such values. 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In 1995, the British Broadcasting Corporation produced a six episode mini-series of Pride and Prejudice in partnership with Arts

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Paying Division One Athletes Free Essays

ENG 100P April 12, 2013 Pay to Play: Should Division One College Athletes be Paid? Every year division one college athletes put everything they have on the line during practice everyday and make hundreds of millions of dollars for their schools and the NCAA every year. These athletes aren’t just playing for the love of the game anymore once they reach the division one level, it turns into more of a job than an activity. The players spend hours every single day dedicating almost all of their time to the sport they play. We will write a custom essay sample on Paying Division One Athletes or any similar topic only for you Order Now These athletes work just as long and much harder than your average person working a nine to five job, so why don’t the athletes get paid for their commitments to their teams? Last year the NCAA made 871. 6 million dollars from division one sports. The average division one men’s football team brings in 15. 8 million dollars to their school each year. The amount of money that these sports make for their school is so high; the players should get some kind of reward for all they do for their schools. The old rules that say college athletes cant be paid in any way needs to change, division one college athletes deserve to be paid for all they do for the NCAA and their schools. Growing up every athlete’s dreams of playing in that national championship game for their dream school and scoring the winning touchdown or overtime goal. As a child you don’t realize that commitment it takes to be part of a division one athletic team. Coming from a big lacrosse and football town, my friends and I have gone through the division one recruiting process and know how hard it is to play a division one sport. Many of my former teammates play division one lacrosse and after talking to them I realized really how tough it is to play a division one sport. When asked about how lacrosse at Sacred Heart University was going, Freshman Spencer Hackett said; â€Å" I’ve grown up with lacrosse and I love the sport very much, but division one is so much more then I thought it would be. Everyday I have two practices that last at least two hour, then after that I have mandatory lift and film sessions. Spencer dedicates at least six hours every day for his team, and they’re one of the lowest ranked teams in division one, I can only imagine the commitment it takes to play on a high ranked team. In my personal experience of going through the division one recruiting process, I saw how much blood; sweat and tears go into being a division one athlete. On my overnight visit at University of Massachusetts, which is a top 20 team, most of my day was watching the team practice, or lift, or watch f ilm. It seemed like everything they did was revolved around lacrosse and to me that’s not what college is about. These division one athletes have such little time to socialize and make friends outside of their sports; everything they do is revolved around their sports. The fact that athletes willingly dedicate so much time to their sports is a huge reason why they should be paid. Division one athletics, especially sports such as football and basketball, are extremely profitable for the NCAA and for their schools. According to NCAA. org, the NCAA’s revenue for the 2011-2012 athletic seasons was 871. million dollars. The NCAA makes an extremely large amount of money from division athletics, with most of the money coming from television contracts and championships such as March Madness. Schools such as Texas make hundreds of millions of dollars because of their excellence in many sports, last year their football team profited $68,830,484. A lot of the money schools make, such a s Texas, is from selling merchandise. Big name schools sell tons of merchandise to the public; selling products such as jerseys should be illegal if they players don’t get paid. Why could they sell jerseys with players number on them but that player doesn’t get compensated for using their number on the jersey? Robert and Amy McCormick of Michigan State University have added a new dimension to the long debate over paying athletes by arguing they are â€Å"employees† under federal labor laws and entitled to form unions and negotiate wages, hours and working conditions. † Robert McCormick was the former attorney for the Nation Labor Relations Board and if he is saying that these players are employees, it’s about time that the NCAA recognizes them as employees also. A common argument against paying college athletes is that they won’t compete as hard because it won’t be the same as when they weren’t getting paid, but that argument has absolutely nothing to do with paying players. If anything, paying the players would make them work harder so that they could make more money! I believe that the best way to go about paying these players would be contracts, just like the professional athletes and like any other employee in the United States. These contracts would go on to say that the players would be paid an amount depending on their contribution to the team and that students would need to finish their schooling so that they have a backup plan. That is why you’re supposed to go to college in the first place, isn’t it? So that you can get a good education! To do this the NCAA would need the support from the professional sport teams and not draft players who haven’t graduated college yet. Another argument why players shouldn’t be paid to play is because they students-athletes and that there is a reason student becomes before athletes. Realistically, these young men and women aren’t student-athletes at all. Many of the players on division one team would never have gotten into college if it weren’t for sports. Also, if they are student-athletes then where do they find the time to do their schoolwork when they have practice, film, lifting, running etc. all day? The only reason many athletes go to college is so that they can get looks from the pros. If they are student-athletes then why do many of them leave college after a year or two to play professional sport? It’s because college is just a stepping-stone to them, they don’t care about the school aspect. When it comes to division one athletes, they are athletes first and students second. The players know it, the coaches know it, the fans know it, the only people who don’t know it are the people who make up the NCAA. In conclusion, times have changed and it’s time to pay division one athletes for their commitment and for the money they bring in for the schools and the NCAA. With college athletics competition being so tough now and so competitive, players have to dedicate so much more time to their sports then in the past. College athletics are not longer a sport that players do for fun, college athletics are now a job for the players that consists of hours of practice everyday and throwing your social life out for your sports college athletics make hundreds of millions of dollars for the NCAA and tens of millions of dollars for the schools, so why is it that these players don’t get compensated for their commitment and contribution to the schools and the NCAA? I personally believe that it is ridiculous that players don’t get paid anymore. One of my best friends Dylan Baumgardner, a lacrosse player at Quinnipiac University said it perfectly when asked if he still loved playing lacrosse, â€Å" I don’t play lacrosse anymore, I go to class, then I go to work all day, then I go to sleep. † Joe Nocera of the New York Times, came up with a plan for college athletics that would make college athletics work like professional sports with signing bonuses, salary caps, insurance, player unions and it would even offer additional scholarships to players who want to further their education. This plan will go into consideration in 2014. How to cite Paying Division One Athletes, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Standards Vocabulary Reading Literary Domain Essay Example

Standards Vocabulary Reading Literary Domain Paper Adaptation This is a version of an original source (such as a diary, an autobiography, or a story) which is modified for presentation in another form, such as a film, a musical, or a play. Allusion This is the reference to a person, place, or event from history, literature, or religion with which a reader is likely to be familiar. Analyze This is to separate a whole into its parts. Archetypal Character This is a character in a work that represents a certain type of person. Argument (1) This involves one or more reasons presented by a speaker or a writer to lead the audience or reader to a conclusion on an issue. Argument (2) This is a statement that seeks to convince readers of something, addresses a problem, and takes a position. Central The key point made in a passage is called its ____ idea. Central Argument This is the dominant and controlling argument. Character This is an individuals mental or moral quality. Characterization This is the combination of ways that an author shows readers what a person in a literary selection is like. Characters These are the people or animals who take part in a literary work. Citation This is the notation of a source used for a paper Classic Something widely recognized as a model or example of a type of literary work. Classical Literature This includes great masterpieces of the Greek, Roman, and other ancient civilizations as well as any writing that is widely considered a model of its form. Conclusion This is when you use pieces of information on a subject to base your opinion or make a decision. You draw a ________. Conflict Often, an antagonistic relationship called a ___ drives the plot of a story or novel. Connotation This refers to the feelings and associations that go beyond the dictionary definition of a word. Context (1) This is the framework of meaning which surrounds a specific word, sentence, idea, or passage. Context (2) When we find the meaning of a word (or phrase) by looking at the words and sentences around it, we are using ____ clues. Context Clues These are in the text surrounding a word and give hints for the meaning of the word. They are called ___ ___. Controlling The _____ idea of a passage is the idea which is dealt with and recurs throughout the passage. Cultural Elements This includes language, ideologies, beliefs, values, and norms. These elements help to shape the life of a society. Cultural Setting This is the phrase for the set of values, beliefs, and opinions shared by a group and surrounding the author at the time of her writing. Definition Usually found in a dictionary, this tells you the meaning of a word or phrase. Denotation The literal definition of a word is also called its ______. Detail This is a piece of information that is used to support a main idea. Dialogue These are the words spoken by characters in a literary work. Diction This is the writers choice of words, including the vocabulary used, the appropriateness of the words, and the vividness of the language. Direct Characterization When a character is revealed by clear descriptions by the author, this is called _____ characterization. Dynamic A character who changes during the course of a story is called a _____ character. Euphemism This is the substitution of an agreeable or non-offensive phrase for one that might be unpleasant or offensive. Event This word means anything that happens to or is done by a character in a story. Evidence This is information that supports a thought or belief. Experience This is the name for what is gathered through the general process of living, or for the process itself. Fiction This is writing that tells about imaginary characters and events. Figurative Langauge This goes beyond the literal meanings of words to create special effects or feelings. Flashback This is a scene, a conversation, or an event that interrupts the present action to show something that happened in the past. Flat Character A character in a fictional work that is never fully developed by the author is called a ___ character. Formal Language This kind of language usually has longer sentences and a greater variety of words than everyday speech. Slang, contractions, and jargon are avoided. Historical The setting and circumstances in which a literary work is written or an event occurs are called its ___ context. Historical Setting This is the political, social, cultural, and economic time and place surrounding the creation of a literary text. Idiom This is a phrase in common use that can not be understood by literal or ordinary meanings. Implied Meaning This is a suggested, but not stated, definition. Indirect This is when an author reveals a person in the story through his/her words, thoughts, appearance, action, or what others think or say about him/her. It is called ___ characterization. Inference This is reading between the lines. It is taking something that you read and putting it together with something that you already know to make sense of what you read. You make an _____. Informal Language This is what people use in everyday speech. It usually consists of fairly short sentences and simple vocabulary. It is called _______ speech or language. Informational Text This is a type of real-world writing that presents material that is necessary or valuable to the reader. Internal Conflict This is when a character has a problem within him or herself. Jargon This refers to the language of a specialized type, usually dealing with a narrow area of study or knowledge. It has a slightly negative connotation, and can imply that the language is mere word play. Literal Meaning This is the ordinary, usual, or exact meaning of words, phrases, or passages. No figurative language or interpretation is involved. Literary Summary A _____ summary is a synopsis of the events, characters, and ideas in a work of literature. Main Idea This is the central and most important idea of a reading passage or presentation. Moral This is the theme of a passage, story, novel, poem, or drama that readers can apply to life. Motivation This is the wants, needs, or beliefs that cause a character to act or react in a particular way. Mystery This is a genre that often includes detectives and a crime that must be solved. Myth This is a traditional tale about gods, goddesses, heroes, and other characters. Mythology This is a body or collection of tales belonging to a people and addressing their origin, history, deities, ancestors, and heroes. It explains the actions of gods and goddesses or the cause of natural phenomena and includes supernatural elements. Non-literal This is when the meaning is NOT exact or word for word. It is figurative and it requires interpretation. Opinion This is an expression of an authors personal belief. It is not something that can be proved to be true or false. Paraphrase This is the restatement of a written work in ones own words that keeps the basic meaning of the original work. Person vs. Self This describes the type of conflict when the leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his conscience, feelings, or ideas. Perspective This is a writers or speakers point of view about a particular subject, and is often influenced by their beliefs or by events in their lives. Plot This is the series of events that happen in a literary work. Point of View This is the perspective from which a story is told. It is the way the author lets the readers see and hear the story; who tells the story. Quote If you repeat the words someone else has said or written, you ______ them. Sequence This is the order in which things are told in a story. Sequencing This is arranging things in order so they can be numbered or related in a connected series. Setting This is the time and place in which a literary work happens. Shakespeare He was a great poet and playwright during the English Renaissance. His works include Romeo and Juliet, The Tragedy of Macbeth, and many sonnets. Source (1) This is a person, book, document, website or record that provides information. Source (2) A research __________ is any material that can be used to locate information about a given topic. Static A _________ character does not change during the course of the action. Structure This refers to a writers arrangement or overall design of a literary work. It is the way words, sentences, and paragraphs are organized to create a complete work. Summarize This is to state briefly. Support (1) to strengthen or prove an argument or idea by providing facts, details, examples and other information Support (2) To strengthen your ideas and opinions with examples, facts, or details is to add _____ details. Supporting Evidence These are the facts or details that back up a main idea, theme, or thesis. Supporting Sentence A _____ sentence helps to clarify, describe, explain, or enhance the main idea of a paragraph. Technical Writing This is writing that communicates specific information about a particular subject, craft, or occupation. Tension This is a form of suspense or potential conflict. It can occur between characters or arise from general situations. Theme This is the message, usually about life or society, that an author wishes to convey through a literary work. Thesis The main point or central idea that a writer states and then endeavors to prove is called a ____. Thesis Statement This is the the main idea of an essay, usually expressed as a generalization that is supported with concrete evidence. Tone This is the attitude that an author takes toward the audience, the subject, or a character. Topic This is the specific part of a subject that is dealt with in a research paper or in an essay. Universal Theme This is the central message of a story, poem, novel, or play that many readers can apply to their own experiences, or to those of all people. Viewpoint This is a writers opinion or standpoint on an issue. Word Choice (1) This is another way of saying diction. This can help reveal a) the tone of the work, b) connotations of meaning, and/or c) his style of writing. Word Choice (2) This is the authors or speakers craft or style. It might be formal, informal, or even slang. Diction is a synonym.