Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Teaching Methods And Styles Of Teaching - 848 Words

Every boss or teacher has his or her own teaching or leadership styles. There are various factors that determine one’s teaching method including the school mission, students’ likes and dislikes, number of students in a class, teacher’s educational philosophy, subjects they teach, and the purpose of instructions intended to be given to students (John 24). So, every teacher should choose a favorable method to teach students. This paper wishes to compare and contrast the styles of two of my teachers from high school. Mr. Howell, an expert in statistics and Mr. Kapner an expert in sociology. They have taught at my high school for a long time and that is why I chose to compare their methods and styles of teaching. According to my observation, the two teachers use different teaching styles in most cases. However, they still have similarities. Firstly, Mr. Howell employs teacher-centered style of teaching. In this case, when he is in the class, he acts as the main authority figure. His interest is just directing instructions to students. He focuses mostly on the students’ ability to pass assessments and tests. For example, after teaching a certain topic, Mr. Howell gives an assignment and then follows up with them to make sure they used the method they used to tackle it. He is not concerned with weather the students discussed the method or if every student did the assignment individually. Students take most of their time in class listening to the instructions directed to them byShow MoreRelatedTeaching Methods And Strategies For Teaching Styles866 Words   |  4 Pagesdebate on what kind of teaching styles work best, what the best curriculum to teach is, or how to effectively organize your classroom. Yet, nobody has discovered what the most effective teaching methods are. As future teachers, we must constantly be m aking decisions that will shape us into the teacher we would like to become. Over the course of the next four years, and even once we become teachers with classrooms of our own, we will be exposed to many different teaching methods and strategies. ThereRead MoreMy Teaching Style Uses The Facilitator Method Of Teaching876 Words   |  4 Pagespreferred teaching style includes taking on a hands-on, active approach to teaching and learning. Every day brings new opportunities for me to learn with and about young learners and their families. My teaching style is impacted by information gained from young children’s home life and communities. My students are engaged and motivated to learn in a safe, healthy, and nurturing environment that enables them to freely explore their environments. My teaching style uses the facilitator method of teachingRead MoreTeaching Styles And Methods Rather Than Learning946 Words   |  4 Pagesother youth ministry classes that I have taken. In this class we discussed more about teaching styles and methods rather than learning about how to deal with adolescents. For me this class really helped me to become more confident that I can be a youth minister. To help relate this experience for me into a paper I will discuss the different historical elements of how to religiously teach, the learning styles, and some of the things that I will take with me as I go out into the field. The historyRead MoreMy Teaching Style And Classroom Discipline Methods921 Words   |  4 PagesWhen I first looked over this assignment I must say I was very excited to take both of these â€Å"tests† to find out what my teaching style and classroom discipline methods were. The scores in my results of my teaching style inventory were all very close and are as follows: Expert 3, Formal authority 3.75, Personal Model 3.5, Facilitator 4.5, and Delegator 3.375. In an ideal world, I would like to think that I teach using all of these â€Å"personalities† at different times. However, while my scores are allRead MoreTeaching Styles in Physical Education 958 Words   |  4 Pagesteacher of any subject you use different styles of teachings that reflect you as a teacher and the lesson you are trying to teach. Sometimes it can be difficult to find what styles may work best in different situations. When teaching physical education the most helpful and beneficial styles are indi rect, direct, and interactive teaching. These teaching styles are critical when trying to teach physical education because they are proven to be effective. These styles will help make you an effective teacherRead MoreTeaching Strategies For Learning Style Preferences853 Words   |  4 Pagesthat Beck matches three teaching strategies to learning style preferences. During which he attempts to link the 4MAT system, Dunn’s LSI, and the Renzulli Smith’s LSI to teaching strategies associated to display individual learning preferences linked to the brain’s hemispheres. The 4MAT system and Dunn’s LSI is teacher driven teaching strategies while the Renzulli Smith’s LSI allows student input into their teaching strategies. In linking the 4MAT system to teaching strategies, Beck furtherRead MoreWriting Assignment : Education ( Test )1269 Words   |  6 Pagesdescription† is used in the Zen-style teaching method. Mori’s input and familiarit y with the Zen-style teaching method follows truly with how David Sedaris in, Me Talk Pretty One Day, found his point of enlightenment. The marvelous feeling of reaching enlightenment comes purely from the effort and speed at which you perform a certain task; from understanding someone to mastering a skill, the end result marks a beneficial use of the time you put into that task. The Zen monk’s teaching techniques used in JapanRead MoreThe History Boys Movie Review728 Words   |  3 Pagescreated through clear contrasts in personalities, and teaching methods. Bennett makes use of this opposition in order to display society’s norms, values and views on education. Additionally, comedy is created because the opposition creates clashes between the two teachers therefore creating conflict. During the 1980s, education ‘was in a state of change. Traditional values of order and discipline were being challenged by more progressive methods’. Therefore, when corporal punishments were banned inRead MoreAnxiety And Classroom Dynamics ( National Institute Of Mental Health1539 Words   |  7 Pages from teaching styles to a student’s studying habits and lack of confidence can affect a student. Anxiety doesn’t always impact a student’s learning capacity, though it may hinder the process of grasping new concepts. Many educat ors find themselves adjusting their teaching styles, to maximize their students’ learning capabilities. Professors understand the stress and anxiety that can stem from the classroom, due to their teaching styles not synthesizing with their student’s learning styles. GoalsRead MoreEducation Is Part Of Everyday Life1037 Words   |  5 Pageslearning must take place. Everyone is different and has individual styles of learning. Learning styles is defined as an individual’s mode of gaining knowledge, especially a preferred or best method (dictionary.com) Therefore, individual must have a better way of teaching others, and same goes to the person receiving the teaching. Learning is optimized by providing instructional method in means suitable for individual’s learning styles. The VARK questionnaire or known as visual, aural/auditory, read/write

Monday, December 23, 2019

The Fourth Amendment Of United States Of America - 2539 Words

Q1: Describe Fourth Amendment as you understand including all areas and places it covers A: The Fourth Amendment of United States of America constitution is the bill rights that obstruct the unnoticeable searches and annexation and needs some judicially approved and carried by anticipated cause. Finally, these words attempt to ensure two principal liberty interests, the right to privacy and freedom from arbitrary invasions. Under the Fourth Amendment, Search and seizure (counting capture) ought to be constrained in the degree as per particular data supplied to the issuing court, normally by a law implementation officer who has sworn by it. Fourth Amendment case law manages three focal inquiries: what government exercises constitute†¦show more content†¦However, there are a few special cases. A warrant less inquiry may be legal: 1. If a police is have got consent to search 2. If the search is event to a lawful arrest 3. If there is a certain cause to search and circumstances 4. If the things are in Plain View. Person: At the point when an officer watches unexpected behavior which heads him sensibly to reason that criminal action may be in the air, the officer might quickly stop the suspicious individual and make sensible request went for affirming or scattering the officer s suspicions. Schools and Cars: School authorities require not get a warrant before seeking an understudy who is under their power; rather, a pursuit of an understudy require just be sensible under all the circumstances. Where there is reasonable justification to accept that a vehicle contains confirmation of a criminal movement, an officer might legitimately look any region of the vehicle in which the proof may be found. SEIZURE: A seizure does not happen simply in light of the fact that the administration addresses a single person in an open spot. The exclusionary guideline would not banish willful responses to such inquiries from being offered into proof in a consequent criminal indictment. The individual is not being seized if his opportunity of development is not restrained. The government may not keep an individual even immediatelyShow MoreRelatedImportance Of The 4th Amendment707 Words   |  3 Pagessaid ,† Statutes authorizing unreasonable searches were the core concern of the framers of the 4th Amendment.†(Sandra Day O’Conner) This means that the Fourth Amendment was very important too the individuals that made this Amendment and to the citizens of the United States of America. The Fourth Amendment was added to the Constitution of the United States of America on December 15, 1791.This Amendment is very important because it gives people the privacy that they deserve.This also means no one canRead MoreOver The Past Decades The Fourth Amendment Of The United1586 Words   |  7 Pages Over the past decades The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution has been very controversial. One of the most debated issues in the courts and among civilians, with regards to the Fourth Amendment, is finding a precise and clear description of what is permissible by law, and also provides individuals their rights, and assures that law enforcement uses proper discretion. The median personnel in all cases involve law enforcement agencies. Generally speaking, if there is a court casesRead MoreThe First Articles Of Confederation971 Words   |  4 Pagesthis was the United States first Articles of Confederation. The Articles’ final debut wasn’t until November 15, 1777 but to officially become one it had to make its way through every individual state to be ratified or accepted (Articles of Confederation). Later came the American Revolution which led the states dispute over political differences in other words the bickering over land Between Virginia and Maryla nd leading to a consequence of a 5 year delay. Soon majority of the states accepted andRead MoreUnited States Of America Constitution845 Words   |  4 PagesUnited States of America Constitution The United States of America is by far the most successful Republic governed country in the world and has managed to survive for over 223 years. The success can be contributed to the foundation that the farmers created, which is the United States Constitution. The framers knew that with time the needs of the people would evolve due to changes in society. That being said, they knew that the regulations in the Constitution would need to be adjusted or expandedRead MoreCivil Liberties And The American Dream1739 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States of America, as people know it today, was built on a bundle of moving pieces to ensure that citizens would live in complete freedom and peace. America’s history illustrates to others the secret to becoming successful is based on fixing and overcoming failures. The United States of America has not always been â€Å"The American Dream† due to many controversies among its citizens. The government of the United States of America ha ndles conflicts between different parties that often opposeRead MoreKing Case Study Individual Paper978 Words   |  4 Pagescourt case the United States of America v. Richard D. King, Jr. and the influence it had on future cybercrime cases. A description will be given as to how the Fourth and Fifth Amendments are applied to cybercrimes, as well as an explanation how the Fourth and Fifth Amendments were addressed in this case. Further explanation on how the King ruling may apply to other cases involving computers or other devices that contain electronic evidence is provided. The 4th and 5th Amendments Applied To CybercrimesRead MoreThe Second Amendment Of The United States1513 Words   |  7 PagesThe Fourth Amendment states in part â€Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated†¦.† 14 United States Code 89 gives the U.S. Coast Guard authority to board, inspect, or seize any U.S. vessel on the high seas or in U.S. territorial waters. The Supreme Court has ruled not every search or seizure requires probable cause or a search warrant, however, these are the exception to the rule. The CoastRead MoreWiretapping And The Fourth Amendment Rights Of Criminals1559 Words   |  7 Pages1928- Olmstead v.United States Supreme court rules federal investigators can wiretap into suspects phones legally, and use those conversations as evidence. Roy Olmstead, a suspected bootlegger, was bugged in the basement of his office, and also in the streets surrounding his home. He was later convicted based on that evidence. An appeal was raised on the grounds that the wiretapped data violated the defendant s Fourth and Fifth Amendment. It was decided that the wiretapped data did not violateRead MoreAn Analysis of the Fourth Amendment1074 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿The constitution of the United States was enacted in the late 1700s at the wake of the Revolutionary War. The first laws of the United States Constitution were called the Bill of Rights and included the laws by which men were supposed to live by. In particular, the fourth amendment on Search and Seizure was enacted in order to protect the rights that the citizens of the newly freed colonies were denied of while until British occupation (gpo.gov). Prior to the colonies victory over Great BritainRead MoreFourth Amendment Essay1041 Words   |  5 PagesThe Fourth Amendment in the Bill of Rights is the foundation for life of citizens in the United States: everyone needs it, and without it, they would crumble and fall subject to government tyranny. In the case of the Fourth Amendment, the framers needed to find a way to protect the people of their country, whether it was for citizens to be secure in their houses, their papers, or their person, the framers had to amend a law that would defend their country and its beliefs against government intrusion

Sunday, December 15, 2019

A reflective essay based on an episode of patient care. Free Essays

Introduction This is a reflective essay based on an episode of care that I was directly involved in managing during a community placement. This episode of care will be analysed using up to date references, health care policies and relevant models. Issues and theories relating to leadership qualities and management styles will also be explored, taking into consideration any legal, ethical and political factors that may have impacted on patient care. We will write a custom essay sample on A reflective essay based on an episode of patient care. or any similar topic only for you Order Now Care delivery, delegation and prioritisation will be examined along with team working, risk assessment and patient safety. I will also take into consideration my role as a supervised student nurse and analyse the roles and responsibilities of those supervising me and what influence this has on my practice. These issues will be debated and questioned within the framework of leadership and management theory In order that I could use this situation for my reflection the patient will be referred to as â€Å"Mrs A†. In this assignment confidentiality will be maintained by the use of pseudonyms, this is to maintain privacy and confidentiality in line with the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2008), â€Å"as a registered nurse, midwife or health visitor, you must protect confidential information†, and to â€Å"Treat information about patients and clients as confidential and use it only for the purpose for which it was given.† Starting an extended practice placement as a third year nursing student enables the student to develop their knowledge and skills in management and leadership ready for their role as a qualified adult nurse. During my extended practice placement there were many opportunities to develop these skills and manage my own caseload of patients and arrange many complex aspects of their care. During this placement an 88 year old patient, to be known as Mrs A, was due to be discharged from a rehab centre following recurrent falls, issues with safety at home, and self neglect, the referral had been made by a concerned General Practitioner. Mrs A had spent the last 6 weeks receiving holistic multidisciplinary care, including; intensive physiotherapy, occupational therapy and nursing care. Mrs A had made much improvement and was able to safely administer her own medication. One of the Physiotherapists called Ken, had commented during handover, that Mrs A had seemed confused during their session together, and asked if the nurses would go in and review her. Upon visiting Mrs A it was clearly evident that she was not herself, and seemed confused. Following discussion with my mentor I felt that Mrs A was not safe to administer her own medication. I recommended to the patient to let the rehabilitation staff administer her medication. Mrs A consented to this, thus reducing a great risk of Mrs A causing her-self harm. I delegated to the support workers to obtain a urine sample which was tested and confirmed that Mrs A had a urinary tract infection, antibiotics were prescribed by her GP. The team leader at the rehabilitation centre was informed of Mrs A’s infection and plan to handover the administration of her medication to them, she was happy with this decision and pleased that I had informed her. This episode of care was managed effectively as the underlying cause of the patients confusion was discovered and treated, a risk assessment was completed and a referral was promptly made to medicine management and a dossett box was supplied to Mrs A, to help her manage her own medications safely. All members of the multi-disciplinary team were fully committed to the team approach to care delivery and this facilitated efficient and organised care delivery. The care delivered was patient-centred and teamwork was integral to providing this care. First will be a discussion on the importance of self awareness and how this awareness enabled a more assertive and confidant approach to be made to managing patient care. Self awareness must be considered as the foundation for management and is a vital skill and quality needed in leadership. If you wish to provide care that is of a high standard and improve your own performance as a skilled health care professional you need to manage the cognitive, affective and behavioural self in order to engage effectively in therapeutic relationships. Self awareness is the process of understanding one’s own beliefs, thoughts, motivations, biases and limitations and recognising how they affect the care and services provided (Whetten and Cameron, 2010). Without being self aware, recognising personal and cultural beliefs, and understanding interpersonal strengths and limitations, it is impossible to establish and maintain good relationship with co-workers and patients. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1954) depicts self-actualisation at the highest level of the hierarchy of needs. This relates to the need to maximise potential and achieve a sense of personal fulfilment, competence, and accomplishment (Maslow, 1954). It is important as a student nurse to be completely aware of strengths and weaknesses, and to be conscious of any limitations, self-awareness helps to exploit strengths and cope with weaknesses (Walshe and Smith, 2006). When organising and planning patient care it is vital to have effective management and leadership skills, this is part of every nurse’s role, and involves planning, delivering and evaluating patient care. These management responsibilities are part of every nurse’s role (Sullivan and Garland, 2010) and to exhibit these professional behaviours demonstrates their value to the organisation (Huber, 1996). To understand nursing management it is crucial to understand what nursing management is and the theory behind it. Managers are defined as â€Å"a member of a specific professional group who manages resources and activities and usually has clearly defined subordinates† (Gopee Galloway, 2009). Another definition of management is a process by which organisational goals are met through the application of skills and the use of resources (Huber, 1996). Borkowski (2010) argues that Douglas McGregor made a significant impact on organisational behaviour and was an American social psychologist that proposed the ‘X-Y’ theory of management and motivation. McGregor (1966) describes the ‘X-Y’ concept as the theory that underpins the practices and attitudes of managers with regard to their employees. Huber (2006) states that theory ‘X’ managers assume that employees are lazy, that they dislike responsibility, would rather be directed, oppose change and desire safety. Theory ‘X’ implies that employees are rational and easily motivated (either by money or threat of punishment); therefore managers need to impose structure and control and be active managers (Huber, 2000). Huber (2000) asserts that the opposing theory, (‘Y’) assumes that people are not lazy and unreliable by nature rather that they are self-directed and creative if well motivated in order to release their true potential. Businenessballs.com (2002) asserts that most managers are inclined towards the ‘X’ theory and usually obtain poor results whereas managers who implement the ‘Y’ theory produce better performance and results thus allowing people to grow and develop (Businessballs.com, 2002). References Borkowski, N. (2009) Organizational behaviour, theory, and design in health care , USA: Jones Bartlett Publishers Cameron, K. and Whetten, D. (2010) Developing Management Skills, USA: Prentice Hall Gopee, N. and Galloway, J. (2009) Leadership in Management in Heathcare, London: Sage Publishers Huber, D. (2006) Leadership and Nursing care Management. 3rd Edn. USA: W.B Saunders Company Maslow, A. (1954) Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper Row McGregor, D. (1966). The human side of enterprise. Leadership and motivation. Cambridge: MA: The MIT Press. Sullivan, E. And Garland, G. (2010) Practical Leadership and Management in Nursing, Essex: Pearson Education Limited Walshe, K. And Smith, J. (2006) Healthcare Management, New York: Open University Press How to cite A reflective essay based on an episode of patient care., Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Corporate Governance Principles Of Bellamy’s †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Corporate Governance Principles Of Bellamys. Answer: The Issues The issue presented in the case study is that the company named Bellamys has performed very poorly in the current financial year therefore the key reasons as to why such a condition had occurred and the specific areas where the loopholes lie that have led to such a downfall has to be identified. Whether the company has adhered to the corporate governance principles laid down by the Australian Securities Exchange has also to be judged and then relevant solutions are to be provided. Therefore in this study a brief understanding of the corporate governance principles can be achieved along with its practical applications. Background The major issue that led to the downfall of Bellamys is a range of expenses that formed a greater part of the revenue earned by the company in the financial year of 2016. Marketing and promotion costs contributed to a 4.5% of revenue. This particular expense in relation to marketing was not at all effective. An unprecedented increase in the cost of overhead also contributed to the critical condition faced by the company. In order to improve and come out of the problem the company decided to reconstruct its composition of the Board of Directors. Moreover the composition of the previously formed Board of Directors was only partially compliant with the ASX Recommendations (Bellamys Annual Report, pg 22). As a result the composition of the Board of directors was changed due to the decision taken in the general meeting held in the date of 28 February 2017 (Tricker Tricker, 2015). The composition of the Board was changed on the belief that the new composition will make the Board more eff icient in nature and will result in more business opportunities. The new composition will make the Board more effective in monitoring the activities of the management along with the implementation of the organizational plans that aim at increasing the revenue of the firm. The management of Bellamys after the change in the composition of the Board of Directors stated that the newly created Board of Directors complied with the 3rd edition of the ASX Governance Principles and Recommendations. The new Board came out with an optimistic approach and claimed that the Board was constructed in such a way that it would be able to guide and look out for the management of the company and help it in effective decision making that would enable the business to get a hold of the long term opportunities of the market. But there have been certain recommendations that restricted the Board from exercising its fullest potential. (Van den Berghe, 2012). A major issue is that as mentioned in the disclosure, half of the Directors are independent Non-executive Directors (Bellamys Annual Report, pg 22). This evidently does not comply with the recommendations of the ASX, as according to the recommendations the majority of the members of the Board should be independent. The belief of the board that non executive directors bring into the company new perspectives and viewpoints is not totally accurate. Though it is acceptable that the non executive directors are experienced as because they have worked in different domains of the same industry and climbed the ladder to such a high position in the hierarchy of authority, non executive directors do not really have detailed information about the happenings or tips and tricks of the organization which is very easily available to an executive director (Kathy Rao, Tilt, Lester, 2012). This fact is proven from the information published in the disclosure of the company that the company having majo rity of independent non-executive directors is not a very practical idea because of the size of the Board and the current conditions in which the company operates (Bellamys Annual Report, pg 23). Moreover the non executive directors having independence may prove to be more fatal for the company as the entire power is given to the members who do not belong to the company intrinsically and work due to performance remunerations (Ahmed Henry, 2012). In addition to this the performance evaluation of the board also may not have been done properly. It should be checked whether the requirements of the Charter are met by the Board of Directors of the company. Analysis Now in order to lift the condition the company and to increase the efficiency of the presently changed Board of Directors Bellamys should strictly adhere to the Corporate Governance Principles and recommendations provided by the council. Therefore the first governance structure where the company made a mistake is that it did not give prior importance to the composition of its Board of Directors. Now in case of Bellamys, both majority of the members were not independent and the most of them were non executive directors. Many experts are of the opinion that hiring directors from outside the company lead to increase in effectiveness of the work performed by the Board because it leads to a distinction between the top level decision management and control. These experts are of the opinion that these outside directors work with more efficiency because of the fact that they get performance incentives along with increased reputation due to their work (Corporate Governance and Company, pg 375). But this is not completely true as because the outside directors may be very sincere in their work but they will definitely not have the knowledge about the inner techniques and knits and grits of the company (Recommendation 2.4, page 17). Some experts recommend non-executive directors in the board of members as because they believe that this reduces the chance of non compliance with the GAA P (Corporate Governance and Company, pg 375). But this is not the real case as an executive member is informed about the company in all aspects, that is, he knows the areas where fraud may occur or the transactions that are more likely to be subjected to the risk of material misstatement, hence violating the GAAP (Yarram, 2015). Bellamys though tried its level best to adhere to the Corporate Governance structure as mentioned by the ASX but also failed in the area where it had to be maintained that the chairman of the Board should very importantly be independent (Recommendation 2.5, page 18). Best Option According to the principle of the ASX Corporate Governance Council the board of directors is a very important component of an organization. The Council is of the recommendation that there is an inverse relationship between the number of directors in a Board to the performance of the company (Tao Hutchinson, 2013). This means that more number of members in the Board will lead to unnecessary confusion and complexities. The process of decision making will unjustifiably be delayed and this will also lead to communication issues among the members (Corporate Governance and Company. Pg 374). Ultimately too many members will definitely spoil the effectiveness of the Board (Recommendation 2.1, page 14). Though some experts are of the opinion that a greater number of Directors will definitely increase the effectiveness of the Board because of the vast range of specializations and skills that they have an expertise in but they tend to forget the fact that only specializing or having a partic ular skill set will not increase the effectiveness of the company because ultimately what matters is the accurate implementation of those skill sets in the interest of the company (Corporate Governance and Company. Pg 374). Therefore the recommendation that smaller boards will lead to higher company performance should be followed by the company (Tao Hutchinson, 2013). The second governance structure that should be followed by the company is that the Board of Directors should ensure clear and transparent reporting on the part of the members of the Board. It has been mentioned previously in this study that the performance evaluation of the Board of Directors has not been done accurately. Though Bellamys has tried its level best to increase and improve the performance of the company and has also for this reason has decided to change the composition of its board of directors but the company should follow the governance structure in relation to diligence of the Board, that is the Board should meet at regular intervals and proper evaluation of the tasks carried out by the Board should be evaluated. Therefore the company should definitely adhere to the recommendation (Recommendation 1.6, page - 13) of the Council that states that increase in the number of board meetings will lead to better performance by the company (Chan, Watson, Woodliff, 2014). Thirdly the governance structure that should very importantly be followed by the company is the governance structure related to the board independence. Here comes two most important theories that run parallel to each other and has led to a lot of arguments as to which theory should be followed. These two theories namely are agency theory and stewardship theory. Agency theory refers to the theory that mentions that the effectiveness of the Board of Directors is directly related to the number of independent members in the Board. In simpler terms the perspective of the agency theory is that the control executed or the power exerted by the Board members are most effective when they are not controlled by the management of the company (Biesenthal Wilden, 2014). Stewardship theory on the other hand mentions that there should be more executive directors in comparison to non-executive directors. This is because the executive directors who have worked inside the organization since long act as stewards and can guide the company to safe shores as because they are familiar with the knits and grits of the company. Therefore the structure recommended by the Council as arises from the above discussion is that the Board of Directors should be such that not contain a huge number of members, the number should be optimum and majority of these members should be independent of the management of the organization (Recommendation 2.3, page 16). Secondly the members who are independent should on priority be the executive members of the organization and not non-executive members (Nana Yaw Simpson, 2014). Lastly as recommended by the ASX the board of directors should contain majorly of independent directors (Corporate Governance and Company, pg 375). Another recommendation that should be adhered to by the company is that the company should incorporate a separation in the roles of the chair person of the Board of Directors and CEO. When such a situation arises then the matter should be handled with utter importance, this is because if the role of the CEO becomes heavy on the chairman of the Board then the entire Board would be dominated by the management (Recommendation 2.5, page 18). On the other hand if the role of the chairman of the Board becomes heavy on the CEO then the needed control on management would again suffer (Yarram Dollery, 2015). Recommendation Therefore all the above mentioned governance structures and recommendations not only remove the governance policy issues but also filter and increase the accuracy of the management of the financial statements of the company. But most importantly Bellamys should follow one of the above mentioned governance structures and recommendations in order to increase the effectiveness of the reconstructed Board of Directors. The particular recommendation should be that the Board of Directors of the company should have more independent directors (Recommendation 2.4, page 17). This is because having more independent directors would definitely render to the fact that more and more decisions are taken or more and more action plans are implemented out of the scope of the management. In case of freedom from the control of the management, the Board would definitely be able to get the inputs from the management but there would be no mandatory rule that it would have to adhere by the decisions of the ma nagement. Therefore it will definitely be more effective in resolving the issues with increased effectiveness, thus proving the decision of change of composition of the Board of Directors to be correct. In the present situation the management may be overpowering on the Board but if the recommendation is strictly followed then Bellamys will surely improve its performance. Limitation The only limitation that apparently may hamper the working of Bellamys is the control of management over the Board of Directors. The management if imposes much control over the Board of Directors then very naturally the performance of the Board becomes poor as because the management will continue putting its demands and wants on the Board thus hampering its own plan of work. References Ahmed, Kamran, Henry, Darren. (2012).Accounting conservatism and voluntary corporate governance mechanisms by Australian firms. Accounting Finance, 52(3), 631-662. Biesenthal, Christopher, Wilden, Ralf. (2014). Multi-level project governance: Trends and opportunities. International Journal of Project Management, 32(8), 1291-1308. Chan, MuiChing Carina, Watson, John, Woodliff, David. (2014). Corporate governance quality and CSR disclosures. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(1), 59-73. Kathy Rao, Kathyayini, Tilt, Carol A, Lester, Laurence H. (2012). Corporate governance and environmental reporting: an Australian study. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 12(2), 143-163. Nana Yaw Simpson, Samuel. (2014). Boards and governance of state-owned enterprises. Corporate Governance, 14(2), 238-251. Tao, Ngoc Bich, Hutchinson, Marion. (2013). Corporate governance and risk management: The role of risk management and compensation committees. Journal of Contemporary Accounting Economics, 9(1), 83-99. Tricker, RI Bob, Tricker, Robert Ian. (2015). Corporate governance: Principles, policies, and practices: Oxford University Press, USA. Van den Berghe, Lutgart. (2012). International standardisation of good corporate governance: Best practices for the board of directors: Springer Science Business Media. Yarram, Subba Reddy. (2015). Corporate governance ratings and the dividend payout decisions of Australian corporate firms. International Journal of Managerial Finance, 11(2), 162-178. Yarram, Subba Reddy, Dollery, Brian. (2015). Corporate governance and financial policies: Influence of board characteristics on the dividend policy of Australian firms. Managerial Finance, 41(3), 267-285.

Friday, November 29, 2019

The Strategic And Tactical Information Systems Commerce Essay Example For Students

The Strategic And Tactical Information Systems Commerce Essay This type of information systems is mostly external in footings. These information systems are fundamentally dealt with the top important people in the administration of British Air passages to make up ones mind on amalgamations and acquisitions, new purchases of Boeing, capital investings and fiscal structuring. Large country of information required for this type of information systems is from the Market and economic prognosis, political and societal tendencies, legislative, environmental and technological constrains and chances. We will write a custom essay on The Strategic And Tactical Information Systems Commerce specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now This information system is mostly from internal and external beginnings, with concern on the current and future public presentation. The chief determination illustration for British Air passages in keeping this type of information system is pricing, capacity planning, budget readying, buying contracts etc. To keep the information systems some of the information is required like for case cost and gross revenues analyses, public presentation steps, sum-ups of operations, production, budget / existent comparings etc. Outline1 3 ) Operational Information System2 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.quickmba/strategy/porter.html3 Suppliers4 Customers5 New Entrants6 Substitute Merchandises7 Competitor Rivalry8 Question 29 Word Count = 2200 3 ) Operational Information System This type of information system is mostly internal, chiefly historical, elaborate information on a day-to-day or hebdomadal footing, frequently quantitative, high truth and narrow in range. The chief facet of why British Airways database is so expeditiously controlled is due of the appropriate operation at Operations degree. The operational degree information system of British air passages chiefly trades with production programming and broadcast medium flights timings and finishs, care of client informations base, re-ordering, booking credence by all agencies of payments, recognition blessing etc. I am traveling to utilize Porter s five forces theoretical account to analyze how an information systems scheme at British Airways can give itself competitory advantage. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.quickmba/strategy/porter.html Suppliers The air hose industry requires natural stuffs, labor, constituents. By utilizing electronic informations interchange they can make a extremely efficent bond with the suplier. This harmonizing to Porter leads to purchaser supplier relationships between the industry and houses that provide the natural stuffs used to make merchandises. Two providers serve rider concern of the air hose industry: Boeing and Airbus. From this side it may look that providers are really strong in this industry. However taking into history the fact, that 100s of aeroplanes were landed and many companies are looking to sell them for low monetary values, providers of new aircrafts are weak now. Bearing in head the monetary values for the new planes, providers are in the really unpleasant state of affairs. Customers Buyers can hold a similar consequence on profitableness as providers, merely in the other way. Buyers are really of import for any industry, as they provide the beginning of gross for the company. As Porter pointed out, purchasers can vie within the industry by coercing down monetary values, dickering for higher quality or more services and playing rivals against each other all at the disbursal of industry profitableness. This is peculiarly the instance for air hose industry. Now, due to the state of affairs on the air hose market, purchasers are much more concerned with overall air hoses safety, so with the service provided. Surprisingly non many companies work on reassuring people about the safety, which in my sentiment is important under present fortunes. Buyers, are governing the air hose industry, therefore for air hose companies it is important to predate inordinate net incomes in exchange for gross revenues in order to vie efficaciously. British Airways through the usage of informations systems through client acknowledgment systems on board it s planes has improved safety and security dramatically to guarantee it s riders are safe and they are non exchanging to another supplier because they fear their safety. British Airways has solved the job of purchasers exchanging to another provider by publishing on-line price reductions for first clip purchasers so an addition in price reductions for majority ticket purchasing and regular ticket purchasers. This has strengthened their bargaining power. .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd , .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .postImageUrl , .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd , .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd:hover , .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd:visited , .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd:active { border:0!important; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd:active , .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue068d586c8eb1281dec036bc8dceabfd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Metamorphosis EssayNew Entrants Obviously, the last thing established houses want is person else taking their net incomes, but this is ever a possibility if other people can come in the industry easy. High net incomes in incumbent houses ever attract attending, so profitable houses in easy accessible industries are invariably under force per unit area from new rivals. The most profitable industries are those that are really hard to come in. They have barriers forestalling entry by other companies.Porter enchantments out seven major barriers to entry in to a concern. These major barriers are the economic systems of graduated table available to bing rivals, entree to input and distribution channel, the opposition offered by bing concerns, the capital costs of entry, regulative and legal restraints, trade name trueness and client shift costs.Due to the lessening of the net income of air hose industry is non safe for new houses to come in the market. In add-on to this, the air hose industry now is highly unsure and new entrants need expensive start up costs. Threat of new entryway in the air hose industry is low ; nevertheless, the chance of the confederations and joint ventures between bing houses is really high. Although menace of new entrants is low, British Airways is still bettering it s services dramtically through information engineering where buying tickets online every bit good as last minute exigency purchasing machines at airdromes across the UK can be easy, fast A ; efficent ensuing in ticket monetary values being driven down lower than of all time due to high gross revenues. Information Technology has besides helped in tickets that are lost can be immediately replace as they have a client database record of purchases made which maximises client service dealingss. The gross will assist with paying off expensive fuel and running costs of the plane every bit good as expensive operating expense costs so they can maximize company net incomes and have competitory advantage. Substitute Merchandises Again, this is really similar to the menace of new entrants. If clients can acquire another merchandise that does a similar occupation, they will non accept inordinate net incomes in an industry. For the house, the most desirable place is where there are no replacement merchandises. The extent of the menace from a peculiar replacement will depend upon the extent to which the monetary value and public presentation of the replacement can fit the industryaa‚Â ¬a„?s merchandise and the willingness of the purchasers to exchange to the replacement. After the September the 11th people in the UK, prefer to take the Euro Star to travel shopping in Paris instead than traveling to New York with aeroplane. Furthermore, people that travel within Europe has the ability to travel with their auto for case to Amsterdam because it offers them security and comfort ability. The air hose industry is constrained by the monetary value and inordinate publicity of the above replacements. Heavy p ublicity of the inexpensive UK to US calls works against air hoses. It could be concluded, that air hose industry experiences heavy force per unit area from replacement merchandises. Once once more Information Technology helps to maintain menace of replacements to a lower limit through on-line efficient buying and discounting for regular A ; bulk purchasing ticket services so clients wo nt travel elsewhere portion of an inducement to make a consumer s demand. Competitor Rivalry When analyzing competition it is necessary to sketch, that one airlineaa‚Â ¬a„?s rivals are non merely other air hoses runing on this path, but air hoses that fly to other finishs, trains. Other rivals are personal autos of the people, who intend to go. Taking into history these factors it is possible to state, that competition in the air hose industry is really aggressive at the minute and for any air hose company it is necessary to upgrade its scheme on the uninterrupted footing to vie successfully on the market. .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 , .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .postImageUrl , .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 , .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5:hover , .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5:visited , .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5:active { border:0!important; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5:active , .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5 .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u819162fd3b064bab81429e44497e56c5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Living, Loving, And Learning: Buscaglia Reflection EssayThe chief job with British Airways is polution caused by it s air hoses. This has caused jobs for them as people who are seeking to travel green would resent winging and would seek to happen alternate conveyances for e.g. ships, ferrys A ; boats. Breakthrough in information systems direction has found ways of cut downing polution in the air cause by major air hoses like British Airways by planing and constructing more aerodynamic, lighter weight planes so the fuel ingestion is decreased as a consequence of that which is besides helped by doing more efficent fuels for the planes. Question 2 Information systems is built-in to the concern of British air passages and it is ever reacting to the alterations in environment by utilizing information systems to rethink it s concern procedures by accommodating to the current clime of technological promotion. Runing an air hose is based on a high sum of information content which is mastered by an information direction scheme. Information systems play a critical function in such cardinal maps as the rider reserve systems ; yield direction systems and flight operation. Apart from the above-named illustrations there are assorted other Fieldss in which information systems play a critical function in British air passages. Some of them are really utile in footings to cognize the fiscal position of British air passages, the hereafter investing etc. British air passages can be loosely divided into different degrees of information systems within the organisation. Some of them, which are mentioned above, are Strategic degree information system. This information system is used to take strategic determinations to help in calculating the budget for the company. Decisions include reappraisal of fiscal statements and appraisals of future net incomes and costs and therefore assisting them to budget for the following few old ages. Management-level systems This information system helps the Management to make and track Gross saless. The directors get ready informations of quantitative analysis. They get ready coefficients, pie diagrams, charts etc and therefore track gross revenues harmonizing to their merchandises and Regions, which they cover. Knowledge-level systems This information system helps the people in the proficient sections and those involved in the research and development by helping in tracking the developments in the profici ent and research foreparts. These systems help British Air passages to automatize all the paperwork and therefore convey about efficient office work. Operational-Level systems These systems include Transaction Processing Systems as follows. Order Tracking System: This system uses an information base of all the orders undertaken over a period for ready mention and action. The order database is used to serve the clients and distributers and plants in concurrence with other dealing processing system. A elaborate analysis on the British Airways was conducted affecting a Porteraa‚Â ¬a„?s five forces analysis. We have considered all the external and internal environment factors that affected British Airways and we realised that although is a good known air hose industry it still has its restrictions. The air hose industry is monopolistic competition as air hose companiesaa‚Â ¬a„? focal point on peculiar sections. As an air hose industry, British Airways is confronting competition and it faces a downswing in economic system. It has the latest cheque in engineering through extremely effiicient information systems. The relationships between the staff members are Excellent with the usage of strategic information direction. Overall, British Airways is the universe s 2nd biggest international air hose and has ever been regarded as an industry leader with instant version to the altering environment to rule the air hose industry. Word Count = 2200

Monday, November 25, 2019

How to Treat Postpositive Adjectives

How to Treat Postpositive Adjectives How to Treat Postpositive Adjectives How to Treat Postpositive Adjectives By Mark Nichol Nearly a thousand years ago, the Norman Conquest had a profound effect not only on the English nation but also on the English language. One of the manifestations of this event is the survival of the postpositive adjective. In many languages, including French, a modifying word follows the word it modifies, such as in the phrase ressource naturelle (â€Å"natural resources†). Because of Norman French’s influence on law, politics, and other matters sovereign, we still sometimes use this form in the mongrel melange that is the English language. Thus â€Å"attorney general† (as well as â€Å"secretary general† and â€Å"postmaster general†), which refers not to a military rank but to the office holder’s generic scope of responsibility. Thus court-martial, which literally pertains to a court of a martial, or warlike, nature but practically applies to a military court in wartime or peacetime. Thus â€Å"heir apparent† and knight-errant, artifacts of feudal system. (Note that compound form is inconsistent: Open compounds prevail, but some hyphenated forms persist. When in doubt, look the term up. If certain, look the term up anyway.) This form reaches even into the quotidian vocabulary of business, with â€Å"accounts payable† and â€Å"accounts receivable,† as well as â€Å"notary public,† and in terms that apply to government but have entered general use, such as â€Å"body politic.† There’s even a pair of ordinary words that sometimes take postpositive adjectives in some contexts; I used one earlier in this post, in the phrase â€Å"matters sovereign.† Another is things, as in â€Å"things unsaid.† And how are such terms pluralized? Generally as shown in the first two examples in the paragraph above the noun, not the adjective, logically takes the plural form: for example, â€Å"attorneys general† (but attorney-generals in British English), courts-martial, and â€Å"notaries public.† The same is true of mother-in-law and like terms, the plural form of which is rendered mothers-in-law, and similar constructions such as â€Å"editor in chief† (sometimes hyphenated, though that style is outmoded), right-of-way, and sergeant-at-arms (pluralized as â€Å"editors in chief,† rights-of-way, and sergeants-at-arms, respectively). Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Does "Mr" Take a Period?Writing Styles (with Examples)

Friday, November 22, 2019

Performance Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Performance Management - Essay Example Performance Management, therefore, combines various management methods that support each other in striving for improved performance in organisations. The concept of performance management and the debate over the effectiveness of performance management programmes have been of interest among human resource professionals for many years (Lawler & McDermott, 2003). As organisations seek ways to improve their competitive edge while maintaining or cutting budgets they are looking towards their human resources to provide more value for money. Performance management is seen as a key element for success in today's increasingly competitive environment (Anonymous, 2001). Indeed, a review of its theoretical foundations indicates that performance management should achieve the stated and, while there is empirical evidence to that effect, the fact remains that its implementation is problematic. Performance Management, as a management method, has three major components, each of which is based on management theories. The first component is strategic planning, involving short and long term goals and objectives, as well as defining the mission and future vision of an organisation and each of its divisions. The second component has to do with constant measurement of variables from the various parts of an organisation. The third component is feedback. The use of teamwork is emphasized in all three major components of Performance Management. The Goal Setting Theory, Total Quality Management (TQM), Reinforcement Theory, and Job Characteristic Theory are used as theoretical bases for Performance Management. The main emphasis in Performance Management is on direction, measures and feedback, to redirect and/or celebrate. Goal setting provides an important basis for management methods, such as strategic planning. Workers must know exactly what results are expected from them and receiv e feedback on actual results which are based on measurements. Strategic planning involving goal setting, both long term and short term, a plan of how to reach the goals, measurement, and feedback are the main factors in Performance Management. Proceeding from the above stated, it appears that the management theories in which Performance Management is grounded, predefine it as a successful approach to managing an organisation's workforce towards greater productivity. While numerous scholars have tended towards this opinion, the fact remains that Performance Management is a topic of controversy. If one is to objectively evaluate Performance Management, it is necessary to review the criticisms which surround it. 3 The Dilemmas of Performance Management In spite of frequently cited problems with traditional, standard performance measurement systems, most companies continue to rely upon them so this practice continues to be vital to organisations. Research at the Center for Effective Organisations suggests that performance appraisal represents the key element in the overall human resource management of an organisation (Mohrman, 1990). The judgments of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Will shale gas rock the world the role of shale gas in changing the Literature review

Will shale gas rock the world the role of shale gas in changing the dynamics of the future energy markets - Literature review Example For instance, the recent publication of the International Monetary Funds World Economic Outlook 2012, identify the oil price as one of the downside risks that will stall the global economy this year.1 Given the volatility of the situation in the Middle East this problem is expected to remain for a long period of time. This is in addition to the fact that forecasts are projecting the decline of the golden age of oil as supply starts to run short. A report by major oil companies revealed that the growth of oil production outside of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) will slow to a stop and that by 2015, the Middle East will monopolize that global oil demand, which is almost 1000 gallons per second.2 The experience during the 1970s of a global shortage wherein there was a lack of adequate supply and the price dramatically increased is still fresh. These are the reason why there is a mad scramble for alternative energy sources today. Being able to successfully e xtract oil from different energy sources would mean independence from foreign oil and the negative impact it entails. Shale oil is one of these alternative fuel sources. The changing energy outlook as with the increasing interest on shale oil is consistent with all modern-day assessments of global energy futures, which according to P. Edwards, V. Kuznetsov and W. David (2007), emphasizes the argument that growth in demand for energy must be met increasingly by a diverse energy mix.3 Change as a result of the coming shortage of oil is inevitable. This paper will provide an overview of the current status and prospects for shale oil. For this purpose a brief history will be provided as well as an explanation of shale oil as an energy resource and a discussion as to why it will play an important role in the global attempt to find alternative fuel sources. Oil shales are generally rocks that have high proportion of â€Å"kerogen†. This

Monday, November 18, 2019

Models of Comparative Healthcare Analysis Essay

Models of Comparative Healthcare Analysis - Essay Example Each nation has devised its own health care system, which is adapted to provide for health needs of the citizens. Different countries devise different models, which they follow to attain the chief objectives of the healthcare system that include protection of families and individuals from financial exploitation and ruin through healthcare bills, treatment, and care of the sick people and keeping individuals healthy (Paranjape & Sadanad, 2010). It is not necessary to study the variations and health systems that exist in every nation, as the arrangements for health care providers seem to follow a similar pattern. Though there tend to be four models of healthcare analysis, the span of this write up does not encompass all the four models, but three models only.The first model of comparative healthcare analysis is The Beveridge Model, which was named after a social reformer who designed the National Health System of Britain. This social reformer was named William Beveridge, and he was a f amous person who influenced the health system in Britain for long. The system advocates for payment and provision of health services by the government, which finances the operations through taxes and revenue collection from the citizens (Wurman, 2004). In countries where the model operates, most of the hospitals, clinics and other health infrastructures are owned by the nation, and most of the health personnel who work in the health facilities are employees of the government (Paranjape & Sadanad, 2010).... This social reformer was named William Beveridge, and he was a famous person who influenced the health system in Britain for long. The system advocates for payment and provision of health services by the government, which finances the operations through taxes and revenue collection from the citizens (Wurman, 2004). In countries where the model operates, most of the hospitals, clinics and other health infrastructures are owned by the  nation, and most of the  health personnel who work in the health facilities are employees of the government (Paranjape & Sadanad, 2010). However, other doctors and nurses in this model work on a private basis, and they get their salaries from the government. Britain’s citizens never get hospital bills that wipe out the entire savings of families, relatives and friends (Institute of Medicine, 1994). The Beveridge Model has reduced per capita since the government regulates the practices of doctors and other medical personnel, as well as the fees that they charge for treatment of patients. The Beveridge Model is popular in the original place where it started (Great Britain), and other regions and countries, such as Scandinavia, Spain and New Zealand. Hong Kong has maintained The Beveridge Model of the healthcare system, which is a symbol of the ideology that the nation has maintained after its independence from the Britons. Despite the fact that The Beveridge Model is evident in most parts of the world, Cuba is a perfect example of a country where this model is practiced to the letter. The government has total control of the heath system, and it controls all services and operations of doctors. Patients get their health services at the expense of the government, and every citizen is guaranteed

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Encouragement and hope

Encouragement and hope Here is the good news for today from todays gospel A word of great encouragement and hope. Hope is the unique signature of the Christian gospel. What makes a Christian a Christian is this inability to quit hoping. A new gift from God is at work on our behalf, at all times in all circumstances. The crowds had pressed Jesus right up to the edge of the water at the Sea of Galilee to hear the Word of God. There he came upon three defeated men. They had fished all night and had only an empty boat to show for their efforts. They had worked hard but had failed. It was a terrible, horrible, a very bad day. There is a short story called about a young man who had just signed for his favourite football club, at his first football game, he beats three men before scoring from 25 yards. His teammates looked at him with awe. His coach said, Youre going to have quite a future around here. His girlfriend awarded him with a kiss after the game. This young man Shaw has the feeling that life is completely satisfying and rewarding. But nothing in the rest of his life ever lives up to that day again. His football experience is equally disappointing. His marriage sours. The pain of failure is even greater because he remembers thinking on a perfect day many years before that life would always be that pleasant, satisfying and rewarding. Life does not stand still. There isnt a once-for-all experience. It was Winston Churchill who said, Success is never final. Failure is never fatal. It is courage that counts. There are going to be bad days. Sometimes we are going to fall on our respective faces. These failures dont have to be endings. They can be the avenue to experience Gods grace more widely and more deeply. Jesus of Nazareth gets into the boat with the three defeated men. He sat down and taught the people from the boat. When he had ceased teaching, he said to Simon, Put out into the deep and let down your nets for a catch. Put out into the deep our lives are often fenced in by low expectations. The worst sin is to aim too low. We have to learn to make room for God. We calculate and estimate, and say that this and that will happen, and we forget to make room for God to come as he chooses Expect him to come, but do not expect him only in a certain way. At any moment he may break in Always be in a state of expectancy, and leave room for God to come as he likes. Life is anything but predictable! Human nature is not fixed and settled. We live under hope. That hope is rested in God, not the situation. At the outset Simon is reluctant We toiled all night and took nothing! The words of a person who has already made the effort and failed. Why should he want to put himself in the position of failing again? How useless this all seemed. Many times quitting is the easiest thing to do once the challenge has lost its glamour in tedious endurance. But to his credit, Simon was willing to take the risk. at your word I will let down the nets, he replied. To their utter amazement, there was churning of the waters as the nets were drawn up, with all the silver bellies flip-flopping in the air and spraying foam everywhere. There was such a catch that they had to signal the men in the other boat to come and help them. Now both boats were loaded with fish. No matter how many times a person has failed there is always the chance that the next attempt will succeed. Victory belongs to the most persevering, said Napoleon. I cant explain it but I know there are powerful kinds of good that can come into a life of a person who continues to trust, and love, and holds on. Simon Peter saw beyond the miracle. He realizes the holiness of the One in his boat. He gets a glimpse of the power and knowledge of Christ. He falls before Jesus saying, Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, 0 Lord. Now, we come to the real meaning of the story. Theres more to life than full nets. One can have full nets and still have an empty life. Jesus said to Simon, Do not be afraid; henceforth you will be catching men. When they brought their boats to the land, they left everything and followed Jesus. You and I have been put on this earth for a more important purpose In Jesus Christ, God loves more than we can mess up. He wants us to return that love. The same power that caused Simon to fall at Jesus feet lifts him into Gods service. What a lesson! Three defeated men moved from empty nets to a full life by the power of Jesus Christ. Jesus invites you to follow him. When you say yes to that invitation, you, too, will discover how much he has to offer. Launch out into the deep and let down your nets and follow me. Youll be amazed at what God will do.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover by Robert Browning Essay -- Rober

Robert Browning wrote the two poems, "My Last Duchess" and "Porphyria's Lover." Both poems convey an thoughtful, examination profound commentary about the concept of love. communicates two interpretations concerning Both poems describe the behavior of people who are in loving, romantic relationships. There are several aspects common in both poems. Using the literary technique of dramatic dialogue, the author reveals the plot and central idea of each poem. Robert Browning tells each poetic story through a single speaker. Both poems reveal an account in which the admirer kills the object of his love. This paper will compare and contrast the following characteristics: the setting, the speaker, the mood and tone, and theme found "My Last Duchess" and "Porphyria's Lover." One speaker, the Duke of Ferrara, tells the story of "My Last Duchess." The story occurs prior to a meeting between the Count, his emissary, and other dignitaries. Duke Ferrara is speaking privately with the Count's emissary in a room located upstairs within the residence. The Duke is describing a painting of his last wife. The room is stately, well furnished, and decorated with several artistic items. Similarly, a speaker whose identity is unknown tells the poem "Porphyria's Lover." In a dramatic monologue, each speaker relates the details of his poem. Unlike "My Last Duchess," the poem, "Porphyria's Lover," has a very different setting. The events that transpire in "Porphyria's Lover" happen in a secluded cottage on a stormy night. The speaker is alone in the cottage. The strong wind and the unceasing rain are heard and felt inside the dwelling. The cottage is located near a lake and is surrounded by a dense forest. The storyteller has a speci... ... of the love shared between a man and a woman. The aspects of jealousy, vanity, pride, obsessive desire, beauty, and flirtatious behavior are contained in both poems. The desire to completely possess another person's love and affection are related through a dramatic monologue. Robert Browning compares the love Duke Ferrara has for his Duchess with the obsession of Porphyria's lover. The Duke's has a jealous, stubborn, and irrational love for his Duchess. Likewise, Porphyria's is the recipient of a sinister, uncontrolled, and destructive love. Her mysterious admirer is overwhelmed by Porphyria's supreme beauty and her sensual mannerisms. His jealousy and obsession for Porphyria, compels him to act upon his depraved thoughts that will secure her total love and devotion. Porphyria and the Duchess experience similar outcomes that result in the death of both women.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Janice Galloway’s, “Foreign Parts” Essay

Janice Galloway’s, â€Å"Foreign Parts† explores the theme of fractured identity in an original and effective manner. In my SSL I shall explore how structure and characterisation are central in the development of this theme with close reference to the text, showing also, how Janice Galloway engaged my interest in an effective way. Janice Galloway offers her readers something, which is a little more controversial and appealing in its approach. â€Å"Foreign Parts† follows the story of two ‘fragmented’ women’s search for belonging, as they travel a foreign country with useless maps and guides in the hope of acquiring some form of identity and independence. Galloway explores this lack of identity, experienced at some point by us all, by fragmenting and splintering the text to reflect the jigsaw characters. This novel ponders how, â€Å"We are neither real nor proper: just fraudulent moochers in other people’s territory†, and encourages the reader to explore fully the issue of splintered identity. In doing so we cannot avoid acquiring an in-depth understanding of the techniques used by Galloway and her unique style, also an appreciation of the importance of structure to the novel’s success. The structure, notably the use of fragmented sentencing, I believe plays an essential role in achieving this success. It not only encourages the reader to take an active part in piecing together the story, but also gives us an insight into the characters themselves and of how they are disjointed and fractured in all respects. â€Å"BRICOLAGE A foreign word on a hoarding.† Confronted by this term on arrival, it provides a fitting description of the central techniques used in the text. â€Å"Bricolage†, in French, is used when describing DIY – making something new out of bits and pieces. In my opinion, this idea is central when talking of Rona and Cassie’s relationship: â€Å"We could make a go of it ourselves. Look after each other†¦Heterosexuality, Rona. A sick joke right enough.† They wish to piece things together in a new way, provide other possibilities. They offer an alternative way of life, a challenge to conventional â€Å"heterosexuality†. This basic theme is made evident throughout the text, primarily by Galloway’s consistent use of the ‘bricolage’ structure. She also achieves this fragmentation by introducing extracts from guidebooks and road signs: NORMANDY is an agricultural region, full of farms and meadowland, orchards and rich green pasture These extracts are what structure Rona and Cassie’s holiday; their dependency upon these useless sources shows the lack of direction they have in their lives. The guidebook they use entitled, â€Å"Potted France† is relevant in expressing that the characters are â€Å"potted†; they do not appear whole and feel they are missing something from their lives. Primarily they lack identity. The introduction of these extracts, reinforce the degree of fragmentation suffered by these characters. However, it is only one of the many jigsaw like qualities of Rona and Cassie, who appear fragmented in every respect. The frequent use of the structure: â€Å"Rona and Cassie, Cassie and Rona†, I think is used to show the fight for equality within their relationship and the unsure stance they also feel. Perhaps it is also relative in reimbursing the fact that Carrie and Rona are isolated from the community, yet bound together because of their likeness. The space around this structure reflects the isolation of the characters. Their lack of place is true, in not only their personal relationship, but both socially and nationally – making structure truly important in relaying the themes. Cassie and Rona go on to describe themselves as â€Å"fraudulent moochers†, this expresses how they feel they lack social position. Also described as being in â€Å"other people’s territory†, it would seem Cassie and Rona believe they have no place nationally either. These concerns appear to be important themes within the book but I think they also reflect the inner most personalities of the two women: â€Å"People tried to buy us breakfast every morning, desperate to practice their English. Chris loved all that, talking in a drawl about the Houses of Parliament and London Our Capital. It’s Edinburgh his bloody capital only he didn’t want to risk saying that and have them think he was less important than they thought.† Cassie cannot understand the need to â€Å"talk in a drawl† and deny your heritage, although she continues to refer to Scotland as â€Å"such a wee country†, showing the lack of significance it appears to have. Therefore Cassie experiences uncertainty in her search for belonging not only nationally, as is suggested above, but also finding a place historically proves difficult for her, as is made evident on Cassie and Rona’s visit to a war cemetery: â€Å"The place was full of folk who belonged to somebody but none of them were hers. She had no right play acting or making up sentimental fictions while her pal was busy.† I think this shows perfectly Cassie’s character – she needs to belong yet fails to do so, she strives to connect with people, but cannot seem to achieve her goal. She makes up â€Å"sentimental fictions†, as she has no sentimental memories of her own to reflect upon. Her past experiences with people had a negative effect on Cassie; these experiences break into the present through memories and photographs and have a similar effect to the extracts: â€Å"Rona took lots of pictures. It was one of the things Rona did. Pictures of disconnected non-human things like mountains waterfalls and god knows. Cassie’s were all of people. People and animals but mostly people, smiling and telling lies.† I believe the fact that her photos tell lies not only reveals the untrusting and quite bitter nature of Cassie, but also how Janice Galloway uses oppositions to emphasise the characters’ lack of belonging. Rona and Cassie, although close friends, differ hugely in comparison. Rona is the organised and more together of the two, she is prepared for anything. â€Å"The bag†¦there’d be a box with sticking plasters†¦and god knows. In case. And under that, under that and under that, more seams of predictable preparedness for other in cases. In case.† I think it is therefore strange that Rona (the controlled more ordered of the two) is the one to make the discoveries. For example, the sunflowers and golden dog, also the field of roses found in the dark. This is another technique, which in my opinion is used well by Galloway, she is not afraid to challenge conventional discourses or place ‘spots and stripes’ side by side. This is what I consider responsible for creating intrigue and interest within the novel. Cassie the disjointed and fragmented character is passive in these discoveries and fails to achieve independence. She strives to please the people around her and confesses that she, â€Å"got comfort from knowing I could do something he really liked.† Their dissimilarity in every particular except one, is what makes these characters feel they have no set place within society. It is their wish to challenge the oppression placed upon them by society is what I think connects these two women. â€Å"Somewhere in that murky wee brain of his there’s a major assumption that he’s more real somehow, that we’re there to look after his ego because we’ve got bumps in the front of our jerseys and he hasn’t†¦ He thinks the only reason we don’t collude is because we’re twisted, not because there was anything wrong with his expectations. Heterosexuality is a complete farce, Rona. A CON.† This shows how these two ‘heroines’ are not afraid to stand up and speak against stereotypical views; it is this willingness to create a new lifestyle and whole other way of life that binds these two characters together. The fact that Galloway uses italics and capitalisation shows just how firm the characters are in their beliefs. The fact that they wish to challenge what is seen as â€Å"the norm†, leaves them without direction. They travel foreign countries with out-of-date, useless maps, which I believe reflects the lack of stability and direction they feel in their lives; it is their â€Å"bricolage† approach to life, which produces fresh hope for the two women. This promise of hope is solidified as the end of â€Å"Foreign Parts† approaches: â€Å"I think it’s wonderful they don’t just leave things falling to bits. They put them back together again.† This in a sense can be seen as Rona’s agreement with Cassie’s â€Å"BRICOLAGE† theory; an agreement with the new way of life she has offered. It is Rona’s laughter that closes the novel, which offers hope in this plan: â€Å"It could be going home. God knows. I’ve no sense of direction me. I haven’t a bloody clue. Rona and me. We stand in separate places†¦Rona takes fresh aim, laughing. Defying gravity.† This not only reflects the opposing personalities of the characters but also their rebellion against that which is expected – â€Å"defying gravity† – they defy that which is almost, in a sense, seen as mandatory in the progression of life. These women who were fragmented, jigsawed characters have, by their own selves, began to piece together a new life; a life which defies traditional discourses. Their holiday together has given them a chance to allow self-discovery and has created hope for their future. Janice Galloway’s unique style is what I believe makes her novel, â€Å"Foreign Parts† truly accomplished. The disjointedness of her two characters is portrayed perfectly throughout the book and is essential in relaying the themes â€Å"Foreign Parts† explores. Galloway is dependant on structure, primarily the fragmented text, to reflect the confusion and lack of identity and stability, experienced by the characters, it is this stylish use of structure that holds the key to the novel’s literary success. Galloway’s text closely intertwines theme, structure and character, it therefore proves a difficult task to dissect this novel, but once accomplished it reveals themes which are important and relevant to many people in today’s society. It is qualities such as these, which make this intelligent novel a contemporary and yet controversial success.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Cyber Monday & Giving Tuesday †Deep Discount Extended 48 Hours Left!

Cyber Monday & Giving Tuesday Deep Discount Offered 48 Hours Only – ACT NOW! The break over this past weekend provided us a collective pause from our busy norms to focus on the â€Å"whys† rather than the â€Å"whats† of life – to be thankful for what we have, and consider sharing our blessings with others. As we return to routine work, we have an opportunity to make a difference for others. The Tuesday following Thanksgiving is a day the world has come to recognize over the last six years as a global day of giving back. On this day our site has decided to further GIVE back to our clients. This is our way of saying â€Å"THANK YOU† to our clients. Even though, Cyber Monday is over but there is still time to make a saving with our Cyber Monday offers! Place your order now and get up to 20% off your essay, DISSERTATION or RESEARCH PAPER in the next 48 Hours. This Sales ends on November 30th, 2017 at mid-night, so ACT NOW. Use the following code to get 20% off your order: CYBER20 If you want to make the most of the sale, kindly reply to this email with the details of your assignment, or go to our website and place an order with us. Giving can mean something different to everyone. To learn more about how you can help, we encourage you to check with you local charities in your area. Two resources in particular that we have become fond of over the years include WikiPedia and Red Cross, so please consider GIVING them some donation as you deem appropriate.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Pronoun Agreement on SAT Writing Tips and Practice

Pronoun Agreement on SAT Writing Tips and Practice SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Pronoun agreement errors are some of the most common on the SAT Writing section, and they can be confusing because peopleoften misuse pronouns, especially when we speak. In fact, I just made a pronoun mistake: can you spot it? Take a closer look at the second half of my first sentence: "people often misuse pronouns, especially when we speak." Who is "we" referring to here: "people." However, the correct pronoun for the third person plural is they. The correct version is "people often misuse pronouns, especially when they speak." On SAT Writing, you'll be expected to spot many such errors. We'll be covering both the basic SAT writing rules regarding pronouns you need to know and the common mistakes you'll see on the test: Pronouns and Antecedents Disagreement in Number Disagreement in Person Unclear Antecedents Spotting Pronoun Errors on the SAT A Pronoun Must Always Match its Antecedent That titlemight seem confusing. What's an antecedent? And what does it mean to "match"? The truth is you probably already have an intuitive grasp of how this works, but let's break it down one piece at a time. What's a Pronoun? A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun- that's it! Usually we think of pronouns as words like I, him, they, or its, all of which are definitely pronouns. But so are words like everyone, which, and each. Any word that can fill in for a noun is a pronoun. For more detailed information on pronouns, take a look at our guide to parts of speech. What's an Antecedent? An antecedent is the noun a pronoun replaces. (You may also have heard these called referents.) Let's look at an example- the pronoun is in boldand the antecedent is underlined: Julie almost forgot her backpack this morning. Simple enough, right? "Her" is standing in for "Julie's." Let's try a more complicated one: Running out the door to meet Jimmy, Julie almost forgot to grab his bag, which he'd left at her house the night before. There's a lot more going onin this sentence, so I've color coded the pronouns and their nouns. The trick here is figuring out who's doing what. Jimmy forgothis bag at Julie's house; now she's bringing it back to him. When looking for pronoun agreement errors, keep an eye out for any sentences that don't track clearly in this way. What Does It Mean for a Pronoun and Antecedent to Match? Again, though this concept may sound confusing, it's actually pretty intuitive. Let's revisit our example from above, with a slight tweak: Julie almost forgot theirbackpack this morning. This sentence clearly isn't correct. That's because the pronoun "their" and the antecedent "Julie" don't agree: Julie is singular and their is plural. They disagree in number. It's also possiblefor a pronoun and antecedent to disagree in person: Julie almost forgot mybackpack this morning. Julie is a proper noun and should take a 3rd person pronoun, not a 1st person pronoun like "my." As a review, the most common pronounsand their correct uses are listed below: I/me/my - first person singular, i.e. the person speaking We/us/ours - first person plural, i.e. the person speaking and others You/your - second person (singular and plural), i.e. the person (or people) being spoken to He/him/his - third person masculine, i.e. a male person or animal who isn't present She/her - third person feminine, i.e. a femaleperson or animal who isn't present It/its - third person neuter, i.e. inanimate objects They/them/their - third person plural, i.e. multiple people or things Moral of the story: pronouns must alwayshave a clear antecedent and agree with the noun that they replace. Now that we've established what that means, let's look at the errors you're likely to see on the SAT. Make sure your pronouns aren't like this llama.(Â © Valdrec) Disagreement in Number I mentioned above that plural nouns require plural pronouns and singular nouns requiresingular pronouns. Usually, that rule feels pretty obvious: it doesn't make much sense to refer to Tomas "them" or the Muppets as "it." However, this is the SAT we're talking about, so the errors are going to be a little harder to spot. Let's go over some of the trickiest cases. Extra Words In a simple sentence, it's easy to spot number agreement errors: Incorrect: The kidswant her own TV. Correct: The kids want their own TV. Catching these errors gets much trickier when we add in more words, however: Because Susie and her brother begged their dadfor a TV, he agreed to get one for her. At first glance, this may seem fine- Susie's getting a TV! But let's look at each pronoun and its antecedent: her = Susie their = Susie and her brother he = their dad her = Susieandher brother The TV isn't just for Susie, it's for both siblings. As such, the sentence should read: Because Susie and her brother begged their dadfor a TV, he agreed to get one for them. When you're dealing with pronouns on the SAT, the first step is always to determinewhat itsantecedent is. This will make it much easier to figure out the correct pronoun to use. The Case of the Non-Gendered Singular Pronoun Even once you determine a pronoun'santecedent, there's still room for confusion. Especially tricky are singular non-gendered nouns. Please remind your friend to bring their speakers to the party tomorrow. Sounds fine, right? But take acloser look. "Their" is taking the place of "your friend's" in this sentence- see the problem? "Their" is a plural pronoun, but "your friend" is only one person. Using "their" seems right because we don't know the gender of thefriend and there is no singular non-gendered pronoun for people in English. However, you can't use 3rd person plural pronouns (they, their, theirs, or them) to refer to singular people of unclear gender. Instead, you need to use "he," "she," or "he or she," as in the example below: Incorrect: According to the news, the mysterious thiefleaves a single rose in place of each thing they steal. Correct:According to the news, the mysterious thiefleaves a single rose in place of each thing shesteals. Correct:According to the news, the mysterious thiefleaves a single rose in place of each thing hesteals. Correct:According to the news, the mysterious thiefleaves a single rose in place of each thing he or shesteals. On the SAT in particular, watch for questions with references to occupations like doctor, lawyer, and scientist- these words often signal a pronoun agreement error. Collective Nouns Collective nouns are similarly confusing, because they refer to more than one thing or person as a singular entity. Take, for example, "the class." The classmay include multiple students, but there is still only one class. It's a singular noun and therefore takes a singular pronoun. Incorrect: For their final assignment, the class had to build a dancing robot. Correct:For itsfinal assignment, the class had to build a dancing robot. Correct:For their final assignment, the students in the class had to build a dancing robot. "They" may seem like the proper pronoun to use for acollectivenoun like "class" because it ismade up of multiple individuals, but the nounitself is singular, so "it" is correct. Collective nouns can be tricky to spot,so be on the lookout for nouns that refer to groups of people. The team, the band, the company, and the town are all examples of collective nouns. SAT Examples Let's take a look at how to spot this type of error in an Identifying Sentence Errors question from a real SAT. Reading over this sentence, you might not notice anything wrong since it sounds fine.The next step is to checkeach underlined section for errors. In this case, C includes a pronoun, so you must check agreement. And what's the first step to check agreement? Find the antecedent! For "they," the antecedent is"a Shakespearean character," which is singular. As such, "they have" is incorrect and C is the answer. You don't even have to think about how to fix the error, just spot it! (But in case you're wondering, the correct version would be "he has" or "she has.") Agreement in number also pops up on the Identifying Sentence Errors, albeit in a different form. Here we have the pronoun "we" standing in for the noun "a buyer." This may seem fine, because it makes sense that we can be buyers, but there's a disagreement in number: "we" is plural and "a buyer" is singular. The obvious fix is "as buyers we are responsible," but that isn't a choice. Answer B has a similar disagreement issue to A with the plural "their" standing in for the singular "buyer. C and E add extra words that make the sentence more confusing. As such, D, which cuts the pronoun altogether, is the correct choice. Disagreement in Person Pronoun agreement in person is a slightly weirder concept than agreement in number, but it's usually pretty easy to spot. The basic concept is that a pronoun must reflect the typeof thing it's replacing. So you use "it" to replace "the garden" but"he" to replace "Abraham Lincoln." Like with agreement in number, the first stepis making sure that you know what a pronoun's antecedent is. Beyond that it's mostly just a question of consistency- if you start a sentence in the first person, you shouldn't suddenly switch to the third without a clear reason. I was on my way home when hesaw a butterfly. This series of events is entirely possible, but it doesn't make much sense as a sentence. Another incorrect sentence: Right after the bombbeeped, he exploded. Again, it's theoretically possible that there's some guy who exploded, but from the context it seems pretty clear that it was the bomb, and inanimate objects can't be referred to as "he." These examples are pretty simple, but once again the test writers are likely to throw you somecurveballs. Let's take a look at some of the harder-to-spot types of errors. This is a disagreement between genders, not a disagreement in gender. You vs. One When explaining how to do something (like I'm doing right now), you can use either "you," in the non-specific sense, or "one," as in "an individual." Both are equally correct: "you" is simplyless formal than "one." However, you must be consistent and stick with whichever pronoun you pick; it would sound pretty weird if I suddenly switched to saying "one needs to find the antecedent." Let's look at how that works in a sentence: Incorrect: If one wants to succeed on the SAT, you must study effectively. Correct: If one wants to succeed on the SAT, onemust study effectively. Correct: If youwant to succeed on the SAT, you must study effectively. The incorrect sentence uses two different pronouns, while the corrected versions stick to one or the other. Errors with you and one are very common on the SAT Writing, so watch out for sentences where either word is underlined. Relative Pronouns The other tricky case with disagreement in person is relative pronouns like who and which. Each of these words is used to refer to a specific type of thing: Who and whom - a person (on the SAT you will notbe tested on difference between the two) When - a point in time Where - a place (use "in which" formedia) Which and that - anythingelse Even though you don't necessarily think of these types of pronouns as having antecedents, they still do, and that means they have to agree with those nouns. Here's an example of an incorrect sentence: I found thegummi bears who I'd lost under my sister's bed. Who or what is "that"? Well, it's "the gummi bears." Gummi bears aren't a person, so it's incorrect to use "who" to refer them. The correct version is: I found thegummi bears thatI'd lost under my sister's bed. Let's look at a slightly trickier case. I finally got to the chapter where the hero sneaks into the castle and rescues the dragon. This sentence sounds fine, but what is "where" referringto? "The chapter" isn't actually a place, so we need to use "in which" instead: I finally got to the chapter in whichthe hero sneaks into the castle and rescues the dragon. When you see a relativepronoun on the SAT, make sure that it is the correct one for describing the type of thing that it is referring to. SAT Writing Example Questions For the Identifying Sentence Errors questions, you can look forproblems with agreement in person in the same way you look for issues with agreement in number: determine the antecedent for any underlined pronouns and ensure that they match. Choices A and C both involve pronouns. In C, "one" is fine, since it's referring to Doris Lessing, who is a singular person. A is a bit trickier. At first glance, "it" seems fine- it's standing in for "The Golden Notebook." But if we fit that antecedent back into the sentence we get, "The Golden Notebookinstantly established herself as one of the most important literary voices of her generation," which clearly doesn't make sense. It's Lessing, not her novel, who established herself, so the correct pronoun would be "she." A includes the error, so it's the correct answer. Remember to watch out for you vs. one and relative pronouns, as well. Let's look at an example of a question involving these topics: As written, the underlined portion of this sentence uses twodifferent possessivepronouns, "your" and "one's," neither of which agree with the antecedent, "a person." Choice D has a similar mistake- it uses both "your" and "one's," when any given sentence can either use "you" or "one." B has a mistake with agreement in number: "their" is plural and can't be used with "a person." C cuts out the antecedent all together, creating a sentence that doesn't make sense. Eliminating these choice leaves only E, which is the correct answer, since the 3rd person plural pronoun "their" is used appropriately with the 3rd person plural antecedent "people." Unclear Antecedents We've covered the basic rules for ensuring that pronouns agree with their antecedents, but a lot of the pronoun questions on the SAT Writingare designed to confuse you by not having a clear antecedent. It's important to remember that a pronoun's antecedent must be a noun and you must be able to circle it in the text. In other words, it's not enough for you to know what the pronoun is referring to, the antecedent alsohas to be obvious in the text. Your vision may be unclear, but make sure your antecedents aren't. (Â © xWoliex) No Antecedent I know I've said this a couple of times already, but it's the most important thing to remember about pronouns on the SAT Writing: every pronoun must have an antecedent.I'm emphasizing this because sometimes you'll see a pronoun that doesn't have one: In order to get the spelunking permitsfrom the office, I need them to call me back. Who does"them" refer to? Presumably, the people who work in the spelunking permit office, but there's nothing in the sentence to specifically indicate that. A correct version might read: In order to get the spelunking permits, I need someone from the officeto call me back. Now it's clear who I need to call me back.Similarly,you'll sometimes see a verb or adjective used as an antecedent- this is incorrect. People who crawl through caves do it because they love adventure. This sentence seems fine; "it" is clearly "crawl through caves." However, "crawl" is a verb, not a noun, and thus cannot serve as an antecedent. People who crawl through caves do sobecause they love adventure. This kind of error can be especially confusing because gerunds, the "ing" forms of verbs, are technically nouns andcanbe used as antecedents for pronouns. Incorrect: I explore underwater caves often; it is fun. Correct: I love exploringunderwater caves; it is fun. "Exploring" is a correct antecedent; "explore" is not. Always make sure that a pronoun'santecedent is a noun you can point to in the sentence. Too Many Antecedents Another common antecedent issue occurs when a sentence has more than onenoun that could be the antecedent. For example: When Nel and Katie got back from the movie, they took her dog for a walk. It's unclear whether "her" refers to Nel or Katie. The possessive either needs to be replaced with something more specific or removed: When Nel and Katie got back from the movie, they took Nel'sdog for a walk. When Nel and Katie got back from the movie, they took theirdog for a walk. When Neland Katie got back from the movie, they took thedog for a walk. On the SAT Writing, watch out for sentences that involve two or more names of the same gender, since that construction often indicates this type of error. This, Which, and That In casual English, we often use the pronouns this, which, and that without clear antecedents. Liz: My mom told me I have to stay home and clean my room. Wayne: That's annoying. This construction may be fine in spoken English, but it would beabsolutely incorrect on the SAT. This, that, and which must have clear noun antecedents, just like any other pronoun.Let's look at an example: It took me 24 hours to travel from Los Angeles to Mumbai; this meant that I was very tired when I reached my destination. What is "this"? It's somewhat unclear, but there are a few ways we can improve this sentence. It took me 24 hours to travel from Los Angeles to Mumbai; thisfact meant that I was very tired when I reached my destination. It took me 24 hours to travel from Los Angeles to Mumbai, soI was very tired when I reached my destination. Both are perfectly clear; however, on the SAT, the second option would be preferable because it is more concise. SAT Writing Example Questions Missing or unclear antecedents pop up fairly frequently on the SAT and they can be hard to spot. Let's look at some examples, starting with Identifying SentenceErrors: Neither Mr. Weasley nor(A) Mr. Potter thinks(B) that eating as much candy as his(C) daughter Jen does will result(D)in anything good. No error (E) The underlined pronoun in C, "his," seems fine- it matches the antecedent in person (3rd person masculine) and number (neither takes singular pronouns and verbs). But it's actually unclear who "his" is referring to: is Jen Mr. Weasley's daughter or Mr. Potter's? It's impossible to tell, so this construction is incorrect. Let's move on to an Improving Sentences question: Again, at first glance, this sentence looks correct. However, "that" requires an identifiable noun antecedent, which it doesn't have. "That" is referring to the tearing down of the Berlin Wall, but that phrase doesn't appear in the sentence, nor does any equivalent noun phrase. Choices B and D also feature pronouns without antecedents. E is not idiomatic, which leaves C, the correct answer. You have to watch for errors as vigilantly as this meerkat is watching for predators. How to Spot a Pronoun Agreement Error on the SAT Writing As you've seen in the SAT Writing examples, pronoun agreement errors appear in both the Identifying Sentence Errors questionsand the Improving Sentences questions. There are slight differences in how these errors are tested in the two sections, however. Identifying Sentence Errors Pronoun errors are among the most common on the ISE section, so any time you see a pronoun underlined, you must alwayscheck for an antecedent and make sure that the pronoun and antecedent agree. Underlined nouns can also indicate pronoun agreement errors, although they usually mean that there's anoun agreement issue, which isslightly different (for more information on those, see our post here (coming soon)). On the Identifying Sentence Errors, these constructionsoftenindicate a pronoun agreement error: More than one name of the same gender "One" or "you" underlined "It" or "they" underlined Collective nouns Names of professions Though sentences with these clues are especially likely to have a pronoun agreement, you should still make sure to check that any underlined pronoun matches its antecedent. For more details on how to systematically check sentences for errors, see our post on how to approach Identifying Sentence Errors questions. Improving Sentences Pronoun agreement errors are alsorelatively common on the Improving Sentences, and you should expect to see somequestions dealing with them. However, you likely don't want to check every underlined pronoun, as on the ISE, since they are often part of more complicated constructions with whichthere are many other possible problems. (For example, pronouns are often used as fillerin wordiness questions.) Certain sentence structures pop up again and again, though, so there are some clues you can watch out for. The following signs- some of which also appear on the ISE section- often warn of a pronoun agreement issue: That, which, or who underlined A pronoun, especially it, near the beginning of a sentence The presence of "you" or "one" Collective nouns For a more complete rundown of best practices for the Improving Sentences questions, check out our post on strategies for the IS section. Test Your Knowledge! Now that we've covered the ins and outs of pronoun agreement on the SAT, why don't you take a crack at some realistic SAT writing practice questions? 1. The herd of black-and-white cattle bellowed(A) loudly as(B) the cowboys herded them(C) into the expansive(D) pen. (E) No error 2. My sister loves books where(A) the villains win, but(B) my brother prefers those(C) in which good triumphs over(D) evil. (E) No error 3. The more time one spends onthe bakingof cookies, the lessyou'll want to eat them. A. one spends onthe baking of cookies B. you spend baking cookies C. he spends to make cookies D. that is spent on the baking of cookies E. one bakes cookies 4. When the ninja finally tried skiing, he didn't have fun, which confused his friends. A.which confused his friends B. that confused his friends C. which his friends found confusing D. by which his friends were confused E. a fact that confused his friends Answers: 1. C, 2. A, 3. B, 4. E What's Next? The only topic the SAT Writing tests more than pronouns is verbs. Make sure to study subject-verb agreement as well! Maybe you're more concerned about the essay? In that case, take a look atour guides onhow to score a perfect 12, how to plan your examples in advance, and 15 ways to improve your score. For more big picture strategies, try these 8key tips or check out our guide to reaching an 800 on the SAT Writing. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: